We thank Mr. Feng He, Yun Liu, and Wei Liu for many very useful discussions during the course of this work. We also thank Drs. A. Colin de Verdière and T. Huck for bringing to our attention the potential relevance of our mechanism of decadal variability to those of thermohaline circulation in previous ocean-only models. We also thank anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and thoughtful suggestions. This work is supported by DOE and NOAA.
Arzel, O., T. Huck, and A. Colin De Verdière, 2006: The different nature of the interdecadal variability of the thermohaline circulation under mixed and flux boundary conditions. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36 , 1703–1718.
Barsugli, J. J., and D. S. Battisti, 1998: The basic effects of atmosphere–ocean thermal coupling on midlatitude variability. J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 477–493.
Carton, J. A., G. Chepurin, and X. Cao, 2000: A simple ocean data assimilation analysis of the global upper ocean 1950–95. Part II: Results. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30 , 311–326.
Cessi, P., and F. Primeau, 2001: Dissipative selection of low-frequency modes in a reduced-gravity basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 127–137.
Chelton, D. B., R. A. DeSzoeke, M. G. Schlax, K. E. Naggar, and N. Siwertz, 1998: Geographical variability of the first baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28 , 433–460.
Colin de Verdière, A., and T. Huck, 1999: Baroclinic instability: An oceanic wavemaker for interdecadal variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29 , 893–910.
Czaja, A., and C. Frankignoul, 2002: Observed impact of Atlantic SST anomalies on the North Atlantic oscillation. J. Climate, 15 , 606–623.
Delworth, T. L., and R. J. Greatbatch, 2000: Multidecadal thermohaline circulation variability driven by atmospheric surface flux forcing. J. Climate, 13 , 1481–1495.
Delworth, T. L., S. Manabe, and R. J. Stouffer, 1993: Interdecadal variations of the thermohaline circulation in a coupled ocean–atmosphere model. J. Climate, 6 , 1993–2011.
Deser, C., M. A. Alexander, and M. S. Timlin, 1996: Upper-ocean thermal variations in the North Pacific during 1970–1991. J. Climate, 9 , 1840–1855.
Deser, C., A. S. Phillips, and J. W. Hurrell, 2004: Pacific interdecadal climate variability: Linkages between the tropics and the North Pacific during boreal winter since 1900. J. Climate, 17 , 3109–3124.
d’Orgeville, M., and W. R. Peltier, 2007: On the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation: Might they be related? Geophys. Res. Lett., 34 , L23705. doi:10.1029/2007GL031584.
Eden, C., and J. Greatbatch, 2003: A damped decadal oscillation in the North Atlantic climate system. J. Climate, 16 , 4043–4060.
Enfield, D. B., and A. M. Mestas-Nunez, 1999: Multiscale variabilities in global sea surface temperatures and their relationships with tropospheric climate patterns. J. Climate, 12 , 2719–2733.
Frankignoul, C., P. Muller, and E. Zorita, 1997: A simple model of the decadal response of the ocean to stochastic wind forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27 , 1533–1546.
Frankignoul, C., A. Czaja, and B. L’Heveder, 1998: Air–sea feedback in the North Atlantic and surface boundary conditions for ocean models. J. Climate, 11 , 2310–2324.
Graham, N. E., 1994: Decadal-scale climate variability in the tropical and North Pacific during the 1970s and 1980s: Observations and model results. Climate Dyn., 10 , 135–162.
Griffies, S. M., and E. Tziperman, 1995: A linear thermohaline oscillator driven by stochastic atmospheric forcing. J. Climate, 8 , 2440–2453.
Huck, T., A. Colin de Verdière, and A. J. Weaver, 1999: Interdecadal variability of the thermohaline circulation in box-ocean models forced by fixed surface fluxes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29 , 865–892.
Jacobs, G. A., and J. L. Mitchell, 1996: Ocean circulation variations associated with the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23 , 2947–2950.
Jin, F. F., 1997: A theory of interdecadal climate variability of the North Pacific ocean–atmosphere system. J. Climate, 10 , 1821–1835.
Kleeman, R., J. P. McCreary, and B. A. Klinger, 1999: A mechanism for generating ENSO decadal variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 1743–1746.
Kushnir, Y., W. A. Robinson, I. Blade, N. M. J. Hall, S. Peng, and R. Sutton, 2002: Atmospheric GCM response to extratropical SST anomalies: Synthesis and evaluation. J. Climate, 15 , 2233–2256.
Kwon, Y., and C. Deser, 2007: North Pacific decadal variability in the Community Climate System Model version 2. J. Climate, 20 , 2416–2433.
Landerer, F. W., J. H. Jungclaus, and J. Marotzke, 2007: Regional dynamic and steric sea level change in response to the IPCC-A1B scenario. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37 , 296–312.
Latif, M., and T. P. Barnett, 1994: Causes of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America. Science, 266 , 634–637.
Latif, M., and T. P. Barnett, 1996: Decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America: Dynamics and predictability. J. Climate, 9 , 2407–2423.
Lenderink, G., and R. J. Haarsma, 1994: Variability and multiple equilibria of the thermohaline circulation associated with deep-water formation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24 , 1480–1493.
Liu, Z., 1999a: Planetary wave modes in thermocline circulation: Non-Doppler-shift mode, advective mode and Green mode. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125 , 1315–1339.
Liu, Z., L. Wu, R. Gallimore, and R. Jacob, 2002: Search for the origins of Pacific decadal climate variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 , 1404. doi:10.1029/2001GL013735.
Liu, Z., Y. Liu, L. Wu, and R. Jacob, 2007: Seasonal and long-term atmospheric responses to reemerging North Pacific Ocean variability: A combined dynamical and statistical assessment. J. Climate, 20 , 955–980.
Mann, M., and J. Lees, 1996: Robust estimation of background noise and signal detection in climate time series. Climatic Change, 33 , 409–445.
Mantua, N. J., S. R. Hare, Y. Zhang, J. M. Wallace, and R. C. Francis, 1997: A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 1069–1079.
Miller, A. J., and N. Schneider, 2000: Interdecadal climate regime dynamics in the North Pacific Ocean: Theories, observations and ecosystem impacts. Prog. Oceanogr., 47 , 355–379.
Miller, A. J., D. R. Cayan, T. P. Barnett, N. E. Graham, and J. M. Oberhuber, 1994: Interdecadal variability of the Pacific Ocean: Model response to observed heat flux and wind stress anomalies. Climate Dyn., 9 , 287–302.
Minobe, S., 1999: Resonance in bidecadal and pentadecadal climate oscillations over the North Pacific: Role in climatic regime shifts. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 855–858.
Minobe, S., 2000: Spatio-temporal structure of the pentadecadal variability over the North Pacific. Prog. Oceanogr., 47 , 381–408.
Neelin, J. D., and W. Weng, 1999: Analytical prototypes for ocean–atmosphere interaction at midlatitudes. Part I: Coupled feedbacks as a sea surface temperature dependent stochastic process. J. Climate, 12 , 697–721.
Pierce, D. W., T. P. Barnett, N. Schneider, R. Saravanan, D. Dommenget, and M. Latif, 2001: The role of ocean dynamics in producing decadal climate variability in the North Pacific. Climate Dyn., 18 , 51–70.
Qiu, B., 2003: Kuroshio Extension variability and forcing of the Pacific decadal oscillations: Responses and potential feedback. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33 , 2465–2482.
Qiu, B., N. Schneider, and S. Chen, 2007: Coupled decadal variability in the North Pacific: An observationally constrained idealized model. J. Climate, 20 , 3602–3620.
Rodwell, M. J., D. P. Rowell, and C. K. Folland, 1999: Oceanic forcing of the wintertime North Atlantic oscillation and European climate. Nature, 398 , 320–323.
Saravanan, R., and J. C. McWilliams, 1997: Stochasticity and spatial resonance in interdecadal climate fluctuations. J. Climate, 10 , 2299–2320.
Seager, R., Y. Kushnir, N. H. Naik, M. A. Cane, and J. Miller, 2001: Wind-driven shifts in the latitude of the Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension and generation of SST anomalies on decadal timescales. J. Climate, 14 , 4249–4265.
Selten, F. M., R. J. Haarsma, and J. D. Opsteegh, 1999: On the mechanism of North Atlantic decadal variability. J. Climate, 12 , 1956–1973.
Solomon, A., J. P. McCreary, R. Kleeman, and B. A. Klinger, 2003: Interannual and decadal variability in an intermediate coupled model of the Pacific region. J. Climate, 16 , 383–405.
Timmermann, A., M. Latif, R. Voss, and A. Grötzner, 1998: Northern Hemispheric interdecadal variability: A coupled air–sea mode. J. Climate, 11 , 1906–1931.
Weng, W. J., and J. D. Neelin, 1999: Analytical prototypes for ocean–atmosphere interaction at midlatitudes. Part II: Mechanisms for coupled gyre modes. J. Climate, 12 , 2757–2774.
Winton, M., and E. S. Sarachik, 1993: Thermohaline oscillations induced by strong steady salinity forcing of ocean general circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23 , 1389–1410.
Wu, L., Z. Liu, R. Gallimore, R. Jacob, D. Lee, and Y. Zhong, 2003: Pacific decadal variability: The tropical Pacific mode and the North Pacific mode. J. Climate, 16 , 1101–1120.
Wu, L., D. Lee, and Z. Liu, 2005: The 1976/77 North Pacific climate regime shift: The role of subtropical ocean adjustment and coupled ocean–atmosphere feedbacks. J. Climate, 18 , 5125.
Zhang, R., and S. Levitus, 1997: Structure and cycle of decadal variability of upper-ocean temperature in the North Pacific. J. Climate, 10 , 710–727.
Zhong, Y., and Z. Liu, 2008: A joint statistical and dynamical assessment of atmospheric response to North Pacific oceanic variability in CCSM3. J. Climate, 21 , 6044–6051.
Zhong, Y., Z. Liu, and R. Jacob, 2008: Origin of Pacific multidecadal variability in Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3): A combined statistical and dynamical assessment. J. Climate, 21 , 114–133.