We thank Mr. Feng He, Yun Liu, and Wei Liu for many very useful discussions during the course of this work. We also thank Drs. A. Colin de Verdière and T. Huck for bringing to our attention the potential relevance of our mechanism of decadal variability to those of thermohaline circulation in previous ocean-only models. We also thank anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and thoughtful suggestions. This work is supported by DOE and NOAA.
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