We thank Tom Farrar, Terry Joyce, Ken Brink, and Dan Rudnick for their helpful comments and suggestions. We also thank the members of the Woods Hole SeaSoar group, Frank Bahr, Jerry Dean, Paul Fucile, Allan Gordon, and Craig Marquette, whose efforts made the Japan/East Sea observations possible. Captain Christopher Curl and the crew of the R/V Revelle provided professional, enthusiastic assistance through difficult wintertime operating conditions. They were a pleasure to work with, and we are grateful for both their exceptional skill and good nature. L. T. was supported under NSF Grants OCE-03-51191 and OCE-0549699. The Japan/East Sea program was supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-98-1-0370 (CML).
Allen, J. T., , and D. A. Smeed, 1996: Potential vorticity and vertical velocity at the Iceland–Faeroes front. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26 , 2611–2634.
Barth, J. A., , T. J. Cowles, , and S. D. Pierce, 2001: Mesoscale physical and bio-optical structure of the Antarctic Polar Front near 170°W during austral spring. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 13879–13902.
D’Asaro, E. A., , C. C. Eriksen, , M. D. Levine, , P. Niiler, , C. A. Paulson, , and P. V. Meurs, 1995: Upper-ocean inertial currents forced by a strong storm. Part I: Data and comparisons with linear theory. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 , 2909–2936.
Dobrindt, U., , and J. Schröter, 2003: An adjoint ocean model using finite elements: An application to the South Atlantic. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 20 , 392–407.
Eliassen, A., 1951: Slow thermally or frictionally controlled meridional circulation in a circular vortex. Astrophys. Norv., 5 , 19–60.
Garrett, C. J. R., , and J. W. Loder, 1981: Dynamical aspects of shallow sea fronts. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, 302A , 563–581.
Giordani, H., , L. Prieur, , and G. Caniaux, 2006: Advanced insights into sources of vertical velocity in the ocean. Ocean Dyn., 56 , 513–524.
Hoskins, B. J., 1974: The role of potential vorticity in symmetric stability and instability. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 100 , 480–482.
Hoskins, B. J., , and I. Draghici, 1977: The forcing of ageostrophic motion according to the semi-geostrophic equations and in an isentropic coordinate model. J. Atmos. Sci., 34 , 1859–1867.
Hua, B., , D. W. Moore, , and S. L. Gentil, 1997: Inertial nonlinear equilibration of equatorial flows. J. Fluid Mech., 331 , 345–371.
Leaman, K. D., , and T. B. Sanford, 1975: Vertical energy propagation of internal waves: A vector spectral analysis of velocity profiles. J. Geophys. Res., 80 , 1975–1978.
Lee, D. K., , and P. P. Niiler, 1998: The inertial chimney: The near-inertial energy drainage from the ocean surface to the deep layer. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 7579–7591.
Le Traon, P. Y., 1990: A method for optimal analysis of fields with spatially variable mean. J. Geophys. Res., 95 , (C8). 13543–13547.
Nagai, T., , A. Tandon, , and D. L. Rudnick, 2006: Two-dimensional ageostrophic secondary circulation at ocean fronts due to vertical mixing and large-scale deformation. J. Geophys. Res., 111 , C09038. doi:10.1029/2005JC002964.
Pallàs Sanz, E., , and A. Viúdez, 2005: Diagnosing mesoscale vertical motion from horizontal velocity and density data. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35 , 1744–1762.
Press, W. H., , B. P. Flannery, , S. K. Teukolsky, , and W. T. Vetterling, 1993: Numerical Recipes in C. Cambridge University Press, 994 pp.
Rudnick, D. L., 1996: Intensive surveys of the Azores Front. 2. Inferring the geostrophic and vertical velocity fields. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , (C7). 16291–16303.
Rudnick, D. L., , and J. R. Luyten, 1996: Intensive surveys of the Azores Front. 1. Tracers and dynamics. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , (C1). 923–939.
Shcherbina, A. Y., , L. D. Talley, , E. Firing, , and P. Hacker, 2003: Near-surface frontal zone trapping and deep upward propagation of internal wave energy in the Japan/East Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33 , 900–912.
Shearman, R. K., , J. A. Barth, , and P. M. Kosro, 1999: Diagnosis of the three-dimensional circulation associated with mesoscale motion in the California Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29 , 651–670.
Shearman, R. K., , J. A. Barth, , J. S. Allen, , and R. L. Haney, 2000: Diagnosis of the three-dimensional circulation in mesoscale features with large Rossby number. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30 , 2687–2709.
Takematsu, M., , Z. Nagano, , A. G. Ostrovski, , K. Kim, , and Y. Volkov, 1999: Direct measurements of deep currents in the northern Japan Sea. J. Oceanogr., 55 , 207–216.
Tandon, A., , and C. Garrett, 1994: Mixed layer restratification due to a horizontal density gradient. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24 , 1419–1424.
Thomas, L. N., , A. Tandon, , and A. Mahadevan, 2008: Submesoscale processes and dynamics. Ocean Modeling in an Eddying Regime, Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 126, Amer. Geophys. Union, 17–38.
Viúdez, A., , and D. G. Dritschel, 2004: Potential vorticity and the quasigeostrophic and semigeostrophic mesoscale vertical velocity. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34 , 865–887.
Viúdez, A., , J. Tintoré, , and R. L. Haney, 1996: Circulation in the Alboran Sea as determined by quasi-synoptic hydrographic observations. Part I: Three-dimensional structure of the two anticyclonic gyres. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26 , 684–705.
Wimbush, M., , and W. Munk, 1970: The benthic boundary layer. New Concepts of Sea Floor Evolution, Part I: General Observations, A. E. Maxwell, E. Bullard, and J. L. Worzel, Eds., The Sea, Vol. 4A, John Wiley and Sons, 731–758.
Zhai, X., , R. J. Greatbatch, , and C. Eden, 2007: Spreading of near-inertial energy in a 1/12° model of the North Atlantic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34 , L10609. doi:10.1029/2007GL029895.