This paper is a contribution to the CSIRO Climate Change Research Program. BMS was funded by CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship and the Australian Climate Change Science Program. We are grateful to the National Science Foundation for support of this work under NSF Grants OCE-0327544 (LDT, TKC, and JH) and OCE-0424774 (RF). We thank the captain and crew of the R/V Knorr and the SIO Oceanographic Data Facility for their excellent technical and logistical support during the surveys. Laura Herraiz Borreguero provided quality-controlled Argo data used in this study. Jules Hummon and Eric Firing gave advice and support for the ADCP data collection. Discussions with Trevor McDougall, Kurt Polzin, and Alberto Naviera Garabato and comments from Eric Firing and the reviewers were helpful.
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