This work was supported by NSF Project OCE-0726697. AVL also acknowledges the completion of this study while a Gledden Fellow at the Centre for Water Research of the University of Western Australia. We thank David Jay and an anonymous reviewer for their insightful comments that helped to improve this work.
Businger, J. A., , J. C. Wyngaard, , Y. Izumi, , and E. F. Bradley, 1971: Flux profile relationships in the atmospheric surface layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 28 , 181–189.
Chatwin, P. C., 1976: Some remarks on the maintenance of the salinity distribution in estuaries. Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci., 4 , 555–566.
Cheng, P., , and A. Valle-Levinson, 2009: Influence of lateral advection on residual currents in microtidal estuaries. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39 , 3177–3190.
Cheng, P., , R. E. Wilson, , R. J. Chant, , D. C. Fugate, , and R. D. Flood, 2009: Modeling influence of stratification on lateral circulation in a stratified estuary. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39 , 2324–2337.
Fram, J. P., , M. Martin, , and M. T. Stacey, 2007: Exchange between the coastal ocean and a semi-enclosed estuarine basin: Dispersive fluxes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37 , 1645–1660.
Fugate, D. C., , C. T. Friedrichs, , and L. P. Sanford, 2007: Lateral dynamics and associated transport of sediment in the upper reaches of a partially mixed estuary, Chesapeake Bay, USA. Cont. Shelf Res., 27 , 679–698.
Haidvogel, D. B., , H. G. Arango, , K. Hedstrom, , A. Beckmann, , P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, , and A. F. Shchepetkin, 2000: Model evaluation experiments in the North Atlantic basin: Simulations in nonlinear terrain-following coordinates. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 32 , 239–281.
Hetland, R. D., , and W. R. Geyer, 2004: An idealized study of the structure of long, partially mixed estuaries. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34 , 2677–2691.
Huijts, K. M. H., , H. M. Schuttelaars, , H. E. de Swart, , and C. T. Friedrichs, 2009: Analytical study of the transverse distribution of along-channel and transverse residual flows in tidal estuaries. Cont. Shelf Res., 29 , 89–100.
Ianniello, J. P., 1977: Tidally induced residual currents in estuaries of constant breadth and depth. J. Mar. Res., 35 , 755–786.
Ianniello, J. P., 1981: Comments on tidally induced residual currents in estuaries: Dynamics and near bottom flow characteristics. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11 , 126–134.
Jay, D. A., , and J. D. Smith, 1990: Residual circulation in shallow estuaries. 2. Weakly stratified and partially mixed, narrow estuaries. J. Geophys. Res., 95 , 733–748.
Jay, D. A., , and J. M. Musiak, 1996: Internal tidal asymmetry in channel flows: Origins and consequences. Mixing in Estuaries and Coastal Seas, Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 50, Amer. Geophys. Union, 211–249.
Lacy, J. R., , M. T. Stacey, , J. R. Burau, , and S. G. Monismith, 2003: The interaction of lateral baroclinic forcing and turbulence in an estuary. J. Geophys. Res., 108 , 3089. doi:10.1029/2002JC001392.
Li, M., , J. Trowbridge, , and R. Geyer, 2008: Asymmetric tidal mixing due to the horizontal density gradient. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38 , 418–434.
Nepf, H. M., , and W. R. Geyer, 1996: Intratidal variations in stratification and mixing in the Hudson estuary. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , (C5). 12079–12086.
Pritchard, D. W., 1952: Salinity distribution and circulation in the Chesapeake Bay estuarine system. J. Mar. Res., 11 , 106–123.
Ralston, D. K., , W. R. Geyer, , and J. A. Lerczak, 2008: Subtidal salinity and velocity in the Hudson River estuary: Observations and modeling. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38 , 753–770.
Scully, M. E., , and C. T. Friedrichs, 2007: The importance of tidal and lateral symmetries in stratification to residual circulation in partially mixed estuaries. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37 , 1496–1511.
Scully, M. E., , W. R. Geyer, , and J. A. Lerczak, 2009: The influence of lateral advection on the residual estuarine circulation: A numerical modeling study of the Hudson River estuary. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39 , 107–124.
Simpson, J. H., , J. Brown, , J. Matthews, , and G. Allen, 1990: Tidal straining, density currents, and stirring in the control of estuarine stratification. Estuaries, 13 , 125–132.
Simpson, J. H., , H. Burchard, , N. R. Fisher, , and T. P. Rippeth, 2002: The semi-diurnal cycle of dissipation in a ROFI: Model-measurement comparisons. Cont. Shelf Res., 22 , 1615–1628.
Simpson, J. H., , E. Williamsa, , L. H. Brasseurb, , and J. M. Brubakerb, 2005: The impact of tidal straining on the cycle of turbulence in a partially stratified estuary. Cont. Shelf Res., 25 , 51–64.
Stacey, M. T., , and D. K. Ralston, 2005: The scaling and structure of the estuarine bottom boundary layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35 , 55–71.
Stacey, M. T., , J. R. Burau, , and S. G. Monismith, 2001: Creation of residual flows in a partially stratified estuary. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 17013–17037.
Stacey, M. T., , J. P. Fram, , and F. K. Chow, 2008: Role of tidally periodic density stratification in the creation of estuarine subtidal circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 113 , C08016. doi:10.1029/2007JC004581.