This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-09-1-0401 and by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). We are grateful to the captain, Murray McGregor, and the crew of R/V Tully and to the line P personnel for their assistance in coordinating the trips to station Papa. We thank Patrick A’Hearn, Robert Kamphaus, Michael Craig, Keith Ronnholm, and John Mickett for their assistance in preparing, deploying, and recovering the moored instrumentation and hardware. We thank the reviewers for valuable comments that greatly improved the submitted manuscript.
Alford, M. H., 2001a: Fine structure contamination: Observations and a model of a simple two-wave case. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 2645–2649.
Alford, M. H., 2001b: Internal swell generation: The spatial distribution of energy flux from the wind to mixed layer near-inertial motions. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 2359–2368.
Alford, M. H., 2003a: Energy available for ocean mixing redistributed through long-range propagation of internal waves. Nature, 423, 159–163.
Alford, M. H., 2003b: Improved global maps and 54-year history of wind-work on ocean inertial motions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1424, doi:10.1029/2002GL016614.
Alford, M. H., 2010: Sustained, full-water-column observations of internal waves and mixing near Mendocino Escarpment. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 2643–2660.
Alford, M. H., , and M. Gregg, 2001: Near-inertial mixing: Modulation of shear, strain and microstructure at low latitude. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 16 947–16 968.
Alford, M. H., , and M. Whitmont, 2007: Seasonal and spatial variability of near-inertial kinetic energy from historical moored velocity records. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 2022–2037.
Alford, M. H., , and Z. Zhao, 2007: Global patterns of low-mode internal-wave propagation. Part I: Energy and energy flux. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 1829–1848.
D’Asaro, E. A., 1985: The energy flux from the wind to near-inertial motions in the surface mixed layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15, 1043–1059.
D’Asaro, E. A., 1995b: Upper-ocean inertial currents forced by a strong storm. Part III: Interaction of inertial currents and mesoscale eddies. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 2953–2958.
D’Asaro, E. A., , and H. Perkins, 1984: A near-inertial internal wave spectrum for the Sargasso Sea in late summer. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14, 489–505.
D’Asaro, E. A., , C. E. Eriksen, , M. D. Levine, , P. Niiler, , C. A. Paulson, , and P. V. Meurs, 1995: Upper-ocean inertial currents forced by a strong storm. Part I: Data and comparisons with linear theory. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 2909–2936.
Egbert, G. D., , and R. D. Ray, 2000: Significant dissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean inferred from satellite altimeter data. Nature, 405, 775–778.
Egbert, G. D., , and R. D. Ray, 2001: Estimates of M2 tidal energy dissipation from TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 22 475–22 502.
Furuichi, N., , T. Hibiya, , and Y. Niwa, 2008: Model predicted distribution of wind-induced internal wave energy in the world’s oceans. J. Geophys. Res., 113, C09034, doi:10.1029/2008JC004768.
Garrett, C., 2001: What is the “near-inertial” band and why is it different from the rest of the internal wave spectrum? J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 962–971.
Gonella, J., 1972: A rotary-component method for analysing meteorological and oceanographic vector time series. Deep-Sea Res., 19, 833–846.
Gregg, M. C., , T. B. Sanford, , and D. P. Winkel, 2003: Reduced mixing from the breaking of internal waves in equatorial waters. Nature, 422, 513–515.
Guiles, M. D., 2009: Energy redistribution through tidal and inertial wave interaction. Ph.D. thesis, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 241 pp.
Jiang, J., , Y. Lu, , and W. Perrie, 2005: Estimating the energy flux from the wind to ocean inertial motions: The sensitivity to surface wind fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L15610, doi:10.1029/2005GL023289.
Leaman, K. D., , and T. B. Sanford, 1975: Vertical energy propagation of inertial waves: A vector spectral analysis of velocity profiles. J. Geophys. Res., 80, 1975–1978.
Mihaly, S. F., , R. Thomson, , and A. B. Rabinovich, 1998: Evidence for nonlinear interaction between internal waves of inertial and semidiurnal frequency. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1205–1208.
Moehlis, J., , and S. G. Llewellyn-Smith, 2001: Radiation of mixed layer near-inertial oscillations into the ocean interior. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 1550–1560.
Mooers, C. N. K., 1970: The interaction of an internal tide with the frontal zone in a coastal upwelling region. Ph.D. thesis, Oregon State University, 505 pp.
Nash, J. D., , M. H. Alford, , and E. Kunze, 2005: Estimating internal-wave energy fluxes in the ocean. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 22, 1551–1570.
Pinkel, R., 2008: Advection, phase distortion, and the frequency spectrum of finescale fields in the sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 291–313.
Plueddemann, A. J., , and J. T. Farrar, 2006: Observations and models of the energy flux from the wind to mixed layer inertial currents. Deep-Sea Res., 53, 5–30.
Pollard, R. T., , and R. C. Millard, 1970: Comparison between observed and simulated wind-generated inertial oscillations. Deep-Sea Res., 17, 153–175.
Polzin, K., , E. Kunze, , J. Hummon, , and E. Firing, 2002: The finescale response of lowered ADCP velocity profiles. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 19, 205–224.
Price, J. F., , R. A. Weller, , and R. Pinkel, 1986: Diurnal cycling: Observations and models of the upper ocean response to diurnal heating, cooling, and wind mixing. J. Geophys. Res., 91, 8411–8427.
Silverthorne, K. E., , and J. M. Toole, 2009: Seasonal kinetic energy variability of near-inertial motions. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 1035–1049.
van Haren, H., 2007: Longitudinal and topographic variations in North Atlantic tidal and inertial energy around latitudes 30 ± 10°N. J. Geophys. Res., 112, C10020, doi:10.1029/2007JC004193.
van Haren, H., , L. Maas, , J. T. F. Zimmerman, , H. Ridderinkhof, , and H. Malschaert, 1999: Strong inertial currents and marginal internal wave stability in the central North Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 19, 2993–2996.
van Haren, H., , L. Mass, , and H. van Aken, 2002: On the nature of internal wave spectra near a continental slope. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1615, doi:10.1029/2001GL014341.
Watanabe, M., , and T. Hibiya, 2002: Global estimates of the wind-induced energy flux to inertial motions in the surface mixed layer. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1239, doi:10.1029/2001GL014422.
Weller, R. A., 1982: The relation of near-inertial motions observed in the mixed layer during the JASIN (1978) experiment to the local wind stress and to the quasi-geostrophic flow field. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 12, 1122–1136.
Young, W., , and M. Ben Jelloul, 1997: Propagation of near-inertial oscillations through a geostrophic flow. J. Mar. Res., 55, 735–766.
Zervakis, V., , and M. Levine, 1995: Near-inertial energy propagation from the mixed layer: Theoretical considerations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 2872–2889.