This research has been carried out as part of the FORMOST project (NERC Grant NE/E015026/1) and the Ocean 2025 program. Additional support was provided by the EU MICORE (EU FP7 Program Grant 202798) and FIELD-AC (EU FP7 Program Grant 242284) projects. Jane Williams (NOC) is thanked for providing the operational surge model output and meteorological (wind and pressure) data, while Clare O’Neill (NOC, Cobs) is thanked for providing the offshore temperature and salinity fields to the Irish Sea and supplementing the meteorological forcing with air temperature, humidity, and cloud cover to enable full atmospheric forcing. Observations used for model validation were obtained from BODC and the NOC Cobs. Comments from two anonymous reviewers considerably helped to improve this manuscript.
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