We acknowledge the National Science Foundation (NSF) for support of this research through Grants OCE-1233832, OCE-1234473, and OPP-0961218. SOSE was produced using the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant MCA06N007.
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Throughout this paper, we use the south to north plotting convention, such that a clockwise overturning cell consists of northward flow of relatively buoyant waters and southward flow of less buoyant waters. In the SO, a clockwise overturning is thermally indirect, as it transports buoyancy upgradient toward the equator.
As part of the Antarctic Treaty, the International Hydrographic Organization has defined the Southern Ocean to extend from 60°S to Antarctica. The region of study in this work is the oceans south of 25°S, which, for ease, will be referred to collectively as the Southern Ocean.
When converting from z coordinates to γ coordinates, the pressure gradient term becomes ∂xp|z = ∂xp|γ − ∂xz|γ ∂xp|γ ∂zp = ∂xp|γ + gρ∂xp|γ, where the hydrostatic relation, ∂xp = −gρ, has been used.