We thank Joe Pedlosky and Hristina Hristova for helpful discussions. The comments from two anonymous reviewers have improved the manuscript greatly. J. Wang would like to thank the rest of his thesis committee Ken Brink and Markus Jochum. J. Wang was supported by the MIT/WHOI education office and the MIT Y-S Fellowship when this study was done, and by NASA Grant NNX12AD47G when this manuscript is prepared. M. Spall is supported by Grant OCE-0926656. G. Flierl is supported by Grant OCE-0752346.
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