R. Tulloch, J. Marshall, and R. Ferrari acknowledge NSF support through Awards OCE-1233832 and OCE-1232962.
“Floats” hereafter refers to the in situ instruments, while “particles” are generated in the model simulation.
Abernathey, R., , J. Marshall, , M. Mazloff, , and E. Shuckburgh, 2010: Critical layer enhancement of mesoscale eddy stirring in the Southern Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 170–184.
Faure, V., , and K. Speer, 2013: Deep circulation in the eastern South Pacific Ocean. J. Mar. Res.,70, 748–778.
Ferrari, R., , and M. Nikurashin, 2010: Suppression of eddy diffusivity across jets in the Southern Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 1501–1519.
Freeland, H., , P. Rhines, , and T. Rossby, 1975: Statistical observations of the trajectories of neutrally buoyant floats in the North Atlantic. J. Mar. Res., 33, 383–404.
Green, J. S. A., 1970: Transfer properties of the large-scale eddies and the general circulation of the atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 96, 157–185.
Haller, G., , and G. Yuan, 2000: Lagrangian coherent structures and mixing in two-dimensional turbulence. Physica D, 147, 352–370.
Klocker, A., , R. Ferrari, , and J. H. LaCasce, 2012a: Estimating suppression of eddy mixing by mean flows. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 42, 1566–1576.
Klocker, A., , R. Ferrari, , J. H. LaCasce, , and S. T. Merrifield, 2012b: Reconciling float-based and tracer-based estimates of eddy diffusivities. J. Mar. Res., 70, 569–602.
LaCasce, J. H., 2005: On the Eulerian and Lagrangian velocity distributions in the North Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 2327–2336.
Ledwell, J. R., , A. J. Watson, , and C. S. Law, 1998: Mixing of a tracer in a pycnocline. J. Geophys. Res., 103 (C10), 21 499–21 529.
Ledwell, J. R., , L. C. St. Laurent, , J. B. Girton, , and J. M. Toole, 2011: Diapycnal mixing in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, 241–246.
Lumpkin, R., , and M. Pazos, 2007: Measuring surface currents with surface velocity program drifters: The instruments, its data and some recent results. Lagrangian Analysis and Prediction of Coastal and Ocean Dynamics, A. Griffa et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 39–67.
Marshall, J., , A. Adcroft, , C. Hill, , L. Perelman, , and C. Heisey, 1997: A finite-volume, incompressible Navier Stokes model for studies of the ocean on parallel computers. J. Geophys. Res., 102 (C3), 5753–5766.
Marshall, J., , E. Shuckburgh, , H. Jones, , and C. Hill, 2006: Estimates and implications of surface eddy diffusivity in the Southern Ocean derived from tracer transport. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 1806–1821.
Naveira Garabato, A. C., , D. P. Stevens, , A. J. Watson, , and W. Roether, 2007: Short-circuiting of the overturning circulation in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Nature, 447, 194–197.
Owens, W. B., 1991: A statistical description of the mean circulation and eddy variability in the northwestern Atlantic using SOFAR floats. Prog. Oceanogr., 28, 257–303.
Phillips, H. E., , and S. R. Rintoul, 2000: Eddy variability and energetics from direct current measurements in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current south of Australia. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 3050–3076.
Plumb, R. A., , and J. D. Mahlman, 1987: The zonally averaged transport characteristics of the GFDL general circulation/transport model. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 298–327.
Press, W. H., , S. A. Teukolshy, , W. T. Vetterling, , and B. P. Flannery, 1992: Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing. Cambridge University Press, 963 pp.
Risken, H., 1989: The Fokker–Planck Equation: Methods of Solution and Applications. Springer Series in Synergetics, Vol. 18, Springer, 474 pp.
Rupolo, V., 2007: A Lagrangian-based approach for determining trajectories taxonomy and turbulence regimes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 1584–1609.
Sallée, J. B., , K. Speer, , R. Morrow, , and R. Lumpkin, 2008: An estimate of Lagrangian eddy statistics and diffusion in the mixed layer of the Southern Ocean. J. Mar. Res., 66, 441–463.
Sallée, J. B., , K. Speer, , and S. R. Rintoul, 2011: Mean-flow and topographic control on surface eddy-mixing in the Southern Ocean. J. Mar. Res., 69, 4–6.
Smith, K. S., , and J. Marshall, 2009: Evidence for enhanced eddy mixing at middepth in the Southern Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 50–69.
St. Laurent, L. C., , A. C. N. Garabato, , J. R. Ledwell, , A. M. Thurnherr, , J. M. Toole, , and A. J. Watson, 2012: Turbulence and diapycnal mixing in Drake Passage. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 42, 2143–2152.
Wiggins, S., 2005: The dynamical systems approach to Lagrangian transport in oceanic flows. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 37, 295–328.
Zhurbas, V., , and I. S. Oh, 2003: Lateral diffusivity and Lagrangian scales in the Pacific Ocean as derived from drifter data. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 3141, doi:10.1029/2002JC001596.
Zhurbas, V., , and I. S. Oh, 2004: Drifter-derived maps of lateral diffusivity in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans in relation to surface circulation patterns. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C05015, doi:10.1029/2003JC002241.
Zika, J. D., , B. M. Sloyan, , and T. J. McDougall, 2009: Diagnosing the Southern Ocean overturning from tracer fields. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 2926–2940.