The household data came from the World Bank household surveys in Africa as part of the Climate Change and Agriculture in Africa Project. I thank Robert Mendelsohn and Ariel Dinar. I am grateful to the four anonymous reviewers of the journal.
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An increase in DTR implies that the increase in maximum temperature is larger than the increase in minimum temperature if the latter also increases as some authors observed (Easterling et al. 2000).
The primary sources for the CRU data were national meteorological agencies and archive centers and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) climatological normals (WMO 1996). The authors note that several countries in Africa (e.g., Zaire and Angola) provided few or no 1961–90 normals; in these cases data were extracted from several published sources. Although there are data density/quality issues in Africa, the data point maps presented in the CRU paper indicate that weather stations are located across all countries sampled in this paper and fairly dense.
Although the overall qualities of the household data reported by the farmers can be questioned, we believe that the two primary household data we rely on are of high quality. Household characteristics such as age, education, and gender were by and large accurately reported because these questions were put up front in the questionnaire and are simple questions. The same is true of the agricultural systems. Farmers were asked to report yes/no on whether the farm owns livestock.