We would like to thank Jeff Lazo and three anonymous reviewers for their many helpful suggestions on earlier drafts of this manuscript.
BBC News, cited 2012: Mobile networks bear blast strain. [Available online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/4659737.stm.]
Broad, K., , Leiserowitz A. , , Weinkle J. , , and Steketee M. , 2007: Misinterpretations of the “cone of uncertainty” in Florida during the 2004 hurricane season. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,88, 651–667.
CTIA, cited 2011: Wireless quick facts: Year-end figures. [Available online at http://www.ctia.org/advocacy/research/index.cfm/aid/10323.]
FCC, 2008: The Commercial Mobile Alert System: Third report and order. FCC Rep. FCC 08-184, 15 pp. [Available online at http://www.one2many.eu/assets/files/18_third-report-and-order.pdf.]
FCC, 2013: The Commercial Mobile Alert System. FCC Order DA 13-280, 9 pp. [Available online at http://transition.fcc.gov/Daily_Releases/Daily_Business/2013/db0226/DA-13-280A1.pdf.]
Fiedrich, F., , and Burghardt P. , 2007: Agent-based systems for disaster management. Commun. ACM, 50, 41–42, doi:10.1145/1226736.1226763.
Gerber, M., cited 2012: Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS) webinar—Update from the National Weather Service. [Available online at http://www.fema.gov/library/viewRecord.do?id=5916.]
GFK, 2006: National Geographic–Roper Public Affairs 2006 geographic literacy study: Final report. GFK NOP, 89 pp. [Available online at http://www.nationalgeographic.com/roper2006/pdf/FINALReport2006GeogLitsurvey.pdf.]
Gizicki, A., cited 2012: NWS to start sending CMAS/WEA alerts in June. [Available online at http://www.awareforum.org/2012/05/nws-to-start-sending-cmaswea-alerts-in-june/.]
Golden, J. H., , and Adams C. R. , 2000: The tornado problem: Forecast, warning, and response. Nat. Hazards. Rev.,1, 107–118.
Good.iWare, Ltd., 2010: GoodReader for iPhone Version 2.8.6. Good.iWare Ltd. [Available online at http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/goodreader-for-ipad/id363448914?mt=8.]
Hammer, B., , and Schmidlin T. W. , 2002: Response to warnings during the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City tornado: Reasons and relative injury rates. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 577–581.
Hegarty, M., , Smallman H. S. , , Stull A. T. , , and Canham M. S. , 2009: Naïve cartography: How intuitions about display configuration can hurt performance. Cartographica, 44, 171–186, doi:10.3138/carto.44.3.171.
Hegarty, M., , Canham M. S. , , and Fabrikant S. I. , 2010: Thinking about the weather: How display salience and knowledge affect performance in a graphic inference task. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cognit., 36, 37–53, doi:10.1037/a0017683.
Jacks, E., 2011: Improving the clarity and understandability of NWS hazard products. Preprints, Conf. on Weather Warnings and Communication, Oklahoma City, OK, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J1.6. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/39BROADCAST/webprogram/Paper189442.html.]
Joslyn, S. L., , Nadav-Greenberg L. , , Taing M. U. , , and Nichols R. M. , 2009: The effects of wording on the understanding and use of uncertainty information in a threshold forecasting decision. Appl. Cognit. Psychol., 23, 55–72, doi:10.1002/acp.1449.
Lott, N., , Smith A. , , Houston T. , , Shein K. , , and Crouch J. , cited 2012: Billion-dollar U.S. weather/climate disasters 1980–2012. [Available online at http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billions/events.pdf.]
Mileti, D. S., , and Peek L. , 2000: The social psychology of public response to warnings of a nuclear power plant accident. J. Hazard. Mater., 75, 181–194.
Mitchell, H. M., , Johnson J. , , and LaForce S. , 2010: Wireless emergency alerts: An accessibility study. Proc. Seventh Int. Conf. on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, Seattle, WA, 5 pp. [Available online at http://www.iscram.org/ISCRAM2010/Papers/209-Mitchell_etal.pdf.]
Mitchem, J. D., 2003: An analysis of the September 20, 2002 Indianapolis tornado: Public response to a tornado warning and damage assessment difficulties. Quick Response 161, Natural Hazards Center, University of Colorado. [Available online at http://www.colorado.edu/hazards/research/qr/qr161/qr161.pdf.]
Nadav-Greenberg, L., , Joslyn S. , , and Taing M. U. , 2008: The effect of uncertainty visualizations on decision making in weather forecasting. J. Cognit. Eng. Decis. Making,2, 24–47, doi:10.1518/155534308X284354.
National Research Council, 2011: Public Response to Alerts and Warnings on Mobile Devices: Summary of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps. National Academies Press, 102 pp.
Nigg, J. M., 1987: Communication and behavior: Organizational and individual response to warnings. Sociology of Disasters: Contribution of Sociology to Disaster Research, R. R. Dynes, B. de Marchi, and C. Pelanda, Eds., Vol. 11, Collana dell'Istituto di Sociologia Internazionale, Franco Angeli, 103–117.
NOAA, 2011: NWS Central Region service assessment: Joplin, Missouri, tornado—May 21, 2011. National Weather Service, Central Region Headquarters, 34 pp. [Available online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/os/assessments/pdfs/Joplin_tornado.pdf.]
NWS, cited 2012: Jetstream—Online school for weather. [Available online at http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/doppler/ridgeimages.htm.]
NWS WFO, cited 2012: Tuscaloosa–Birmingham EF-4 tornado: April 27, 2011. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office: Birmingham, AL. [Available online at http://www.srh.noaa.gov/bmx/?n=event_04272011tuscbirm.]
Perry, R. W., , Lindell M. K. , , and Greene M. R. , 1981: Evacuation Planning in Emergency Management. Lexington Books, 199 pp.
Peters, E., 2008: Preferred data visualization techniques may not lead to comprehension and use of hazard information: Commentary on Pang. Risk Assessment, Modeling and Decision Support: Strategic Directions, A. Bostrom, S. French, and S. Gottlieb, Eds., Risk, Governance and Society, Vol. 14, Springer-Verlag, 296–306.
Psychology Software Tools, 2010: E-Prime Professional, Build 220.127.116.11.2.0, Build 18.104.22.168. Psychology Software Tools.
Quarantelli, E. L., 1980: Evacuation Behavior and Problems: Findings and Implications from the Research Literature. Final Project Report, Vol. 27, Disaster Research Center, Ohio State University, 428 pp.
Rainie, L., 2012: Two-thirds of young adults and those with higher income are smartphone owners. Pew Internet and American Life Project, 4 pp. [Available online at http://pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2012/PIP_Smartphones_Sept12%209%2010%2012.pdf.]
Riad, J. K., , Norris F. H. , , and Ruback R. B. , 1999: Predicting evacuation in two major disasters: Risk perception, social influence, and access to resources. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol., 29, 918–934.
Roberts, L., , and Felser C. , 2011: Plausibility and recovery from garden paths in second language sentence processing. Appl. Psychol., 32, 299–331, doi:10.1017/S0142716410000421.
Rupinski, P., 2011: Housing after the tornado. Tuscaloosa News, 28 August. [Available online at http://www.tuscaloosanews.com/article/20110828/NEWS/110829722.]
Savelli, S., , and Joslyn S. , 2013: The advantages of 80% predictive interval forecasts for non-experts and the impact of visualizations. Appl. Cognit. Psychol., in press.
Schnotz, W., , and Bannert M. , 2003: Construction and interference in learning from multiple representation. Learn. Instr., 13, 141–156, doi:10.1016/S0959-4752(02)00017-8.
Sherman-Morris, K., 2010: Tornado warning dissemination and response at a university campus. Nat. Hazards, 52, 623–638, doi:10.1007/s11069-009-9405-0.
Sutter, D., , and Erickson S. , 2010: The time cost of tornado warnings and the savings with storm-based warnings. Wea. Climate Soc., 2, 103–112.
Traynor, P., 2008: Characterizing the limitations of third-party EAS over cellular text messaging services. 4G Americas White Paper, 31 pp. [Available online at http://www.4gamericas.org/documents/Characterizing_the_Limitations_of_3rd_Party_EAS-Traynor_Sept08.pdf.]
The reader can contact the first author for further details on how the researchers constructed the graphic storm and radar images.