Wanyun Shao is a recent Ph.D. graduate from Department of Geography and Anthropology at Louisiana State University. Her current affiliation is the Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority. Barry D. Keim is the Fred B. Kniffen Professor of Geography, Louisiana State Climatologist, and Director of NOAA’s Southern Climate Impacts Planning Program at Louisiana State University. James C. Garand is the Emogine Pliner Distinguished Professor and R. Downs Poindexter Professor of Political Science at Louisiana State University. Lawrence C. Hamilton is the Professor of Sociology and a Senior Fellow of the Carsey Institute at the University of New Hampshire. This paper is based on research supported by NOAA Grant NA080AR4320886. The findings and opinions reported are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the funding organizations.
Borick, C. P., and Rabe B. G. , 2010: A reason to believe: Examining the factors that determine individual views on global warming. Soc. Sci. Quart., 91, 777–800.
De Martino, G., Fontana N. , Marini G. , and Singh V. P. , 2013: Variability and trend in seasonal precipitation in the continental United States. J. Hydrol. Eng., 18 (6), 630–640.
Dunlap, R. E., and McCright A. M. , 2008: A widening gap: Republican and Democratic views on climate change. Environment, 50, 26–35.
Dunlap, R. E., Xiao C. , and McCright A. M. , 2001: Politics and environment in America: Partisan and ideological cleavages in public support for environmentalism. Environ. Polit., 10 (4), 23–48.
Egan, P. J., and Mullin M. , 2012: Turning personal experience into political attitudes: The effect of local weather on Americans’ perceptions about global warming. J. Polit., 74 (3), 796–809.
Elliott, E., Seldon B. J. , and Regens J. L. , 1997: Political and economic determinants of individuals’ support for environmental spending. J. Environ. Manage., 51, 15–27.
Finucane, M. L., Slovic P. , Mertz C. K. , Flynn J. , and Satterfield T. A. , 2000: Gender, race, and perceived risk: The ‘white male’ effect. Health Risk Soc., 2 (2), 159–172.
Hamilton, L. C., 2008: Who cares about polar regions? Results from a survey of U.S. public opinion. Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 40, 671–678.
Hamilton, L. C., 2011: Education, politics and opinions about climate change evidence for interaction effects. Climatic Change, 104, 231–242.
Hamilton, L. C., and Keim B. D. , 2009: Regional variation in perceptions about climate change. Int. J. Climatol., 29, 2348–2352.
Hamilton, L. C., and Stampone M. D. , 2013: Blowin’ in the wind: Short-term weather and belief in anthropogenic climate change. Wea. Climate Soc., 5, 112–119.
Howe, P., Markowitz E. , Lee T. M. , Ko C. Y. , and Leiserowitz A. , 2013: Global perceptions of local temperature change. Nat. Climate Change, 3, 352–356, doi:10.1038/nclimate1768.
Kahn, M. E., and Kotchen M. J. , 2010: Environmental concern and the business cycle: The chilling effect of recession. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) Working Paper 16241, 28 pp.
Karl, T. R., Williams C. N. Jr., Quinlan F. T. , and Boden T. A. , 1990: United States Historical Climatology Network (HCN) serial temperature and precipitation data. Environmental Science Division Publ. 3404, Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 389 pp.
Kellstedt, P. M., Zahran S. , and Vedlitz A. , 2008: Personal efficacy, the information environment, and attitudes toward global warming and climate change in the United States. Risk Anal., 28, 113–126.
Krosnick, J. A., Holbrook A. L. , Lowe L. , and Visser P. S. , 2006: The origins and consequences of democratic citizens’ policy agendas: A study of popular concern about global warming. Climatic Change, 77, 7–43.
Leiserowitz, A., 2006: Climate change risk perception and policy preferences: The role of affect, imagery, and values. Climatic Change, 77, 45–72.
Leiserowitz, A., Maibach E. , Roser-Renouf C. , Feinberg G. , and Howe P. , 2012: Extreme weather and climate change in the American mind. Yale University and George Mason University Rep., 30 pp.
Li, Y., Johnson E. J. , and Zaval L. , 2011: Local warming: Daily temperature change influences belief in global warming. Psychol. Sci., 22 (4), 454–459.
Malka, A., Krosnick J. A. , and Langer G. , 2009: The association of knowledge with concern about global warming: Trusted information sources shape public thinking. Risk Anal., 29, 633–647.
Marshall, B. K., 2004: Gender, race, and perceived environmental risk: The “white male effect” in Cancer Alley, LA. Sociol. Spectrum, 24, 453–478.
McCarthy, J. J., and Coauthors, Eds., 2001: Climate Change 2001—Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, 1032 pp.
McCright, A. M., 2009: The social bases of climate change knowledge, concern, and policy support in the U.S. general public. Hofstra Law Rev., 37, 1017–1046.
McCright, A. M., and Dunlap R. E. , 2011a: The politicization of climate change and polarization in the American public’s views of global warming, 2001–2010. Sociol. Quart., 52, 155–194.
McCright, A. M., and Dunlap R. E. , 2011b: Cool dudes: The denial of climate change among conservative white males in the United States. Global Environ. Change, 21, 1163–1172.
Myers, T., Maibach E. , Roser-Renouf C. , Akerlof K. , and Leiserowitz A. , 2013: The relationship between personal experience and belief in the reality of global warming. Nat. Climate Change, 3, 343–347, doi:10.1038/nclimate1754.
Parry, M. L., Canziani O. F. , Palutikof J. P. , van der Linden P. J. and Hanson C. E. , Eds., 2007: Climate Change 2007—Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, 976 pp.
Pew Research Center, cited2006: Little consensus on global warming: Partisanship drives opinion. [Available online at http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=280.]
Pew Research Center, cited2007: Global warming: A divide on causes and solutions. [Available online at http://people-press.org/reports/pdf/303.pdf.]
Pew Research Center, cited2012: More say there is solid evidence of global warming. [Available online at http://www.people-press.org/2012/10/15/more-say-there-is-solid-evidence-of-global-warming/.]
Primo, D. M., Jacobsmeier M. L. , and Milyo J. , 2007: Estimating the impact of state policies and institutions with mixed-level data. State Polit. Policy Quart., 7, 446–459.
Rabe-Hesketh, S., and Skrondal A. , 2008: Multilevel and Longitudinal Modeling Using Stata. 2nd ed. Stata Press, 562 pp.
Tegart, W. J. McG., Sheldon G. W. , and Griffiths D. C. , Eds., 1990: Climate Change 1990—The IPCC Impacts Assessment. Australian Government Publishing Service, 294 pp.
Watson, R. T., Zinyowera M. C. , and Moss R. H. , 1995: Climate Change 1995—Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific–Technical Analyses. Cambridge University Press, 878 pp.
The monthly data that we select depend on the date when each survey was conducted. When the survey was mainly conducted early in a particular month (i.e., before 15th of that month), we extract the monthly average temperature and monthly total precipitation data on the month prior to the interview month. When the survey was conducted late on a particular month (i.e., after 20th of that month) or in the week between two months (i.e., from 28 April to 10 May), we extract the monthly average temperature and monthly total precipitation data for the current month.
We assume that each respondent is located at the centroid of each county or zip code area.