The authors wish to thank Mr. Tim Marshall (Haag Engineering) for supplying detailed maps of his Joplin tornado damage survey. The authors appreciate critical comments and productive discussions provided by Drs. David Changnon and Richard Greene (NIU). We also thank the efforts of Mr. Donald Heins (NIU alumnus), who assisted in the development of early versions of the GIS gridding routine. Finally, we appreciate the thoughtful reviews provided by the anonymous referees.
Ashley, W. S., 2007: Spatial and temporal analysis of tornado fatalities in the United States: 1880–2005. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 1214–1228.
Auch, R., , Taylor J. , , and Acevedo W. , 2004: Urban growth in American cities: Glimpses of U.S. urbanization. Circular 1252, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 52 pp. [Available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2004/circ1252/.]
Balk, D., , Brickman M. , , Anderson B. , , Pozzi F. , , and Yetman G. , 2005: Mapping global urban and rural population distributions: Estimates of future global population distribution to 2015. Center for International Earth Science Information Network, Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center, Columbia University, 77 pp. [Available online at http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/docs/GISn.24_web_gpwAnnex.pdf.]
Barthel, F., , and Neumayer E. , 2012: A trend analysis of normalized insured damage from natural disasters. Climatic Change, 113, 215–237.
Blumenfeld, K., 2008: Comments on “Low-level winds in tornadoes and potential catastrophic tornado impacts in urban areas.” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89, 1578–1579.
Brooks, H. E., , Doswell C. A. III, , and Kay M. P. , 2003: Climatological estimates of local daily tornado probability. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 626–640.
Brooks, H. E., , Doswell C. A. III, , and Sutter D. , 2008: Comments on “Low-level winds in tornadoes and potential catastrophic tornado impacts in urban areas.” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89, 87–90.
Burkett, V. R., , and Davidson M. A. , 2012: Coastal impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: A technical input to the 2012 National Climate Assessment. Cooperative Report to the 2013 National Climate Assessment, 150 pp. [Available online at http://www.coastalstates.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Coastal-Impacts-Adaptation-Vulnerabilities-Oct-2012.pdf.]
Cai, Q., , Rushton G. , , Bhaduri B. , , Bright E. , , and Coleman P. , 2006: Estimating small-area populations by age and sex using spatial interpolation and statistical inference methods. Trans. GIS, 10, 577–598.
Census Bureau, 1994: Geographic Areas Reference Manual (GARM). Department of Commerce, United States Census Bureau. [Available online at http://www.census.gov/geo/reference/garm.html.]
Census Bureau, cited 2012a: Growth in urban population outpaces rest of nation. Department of Commerce, United States Census Bureau. [Available online at http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/2010_census/cb12-50.html.]
Census Bureau, cited 2012b: Populations increasing in many downtowns. Department of Commerce, United States Census Bureau. [Available online at http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/2010_census/cb12-181.html.]
Changnon, S. A., , Pielke R. A. Jr., , Changnon D. , , Sylves R. T. , , and Pulwarty R. , 2000: Human factors explain the increased losses from weather and climate extremes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81, 437–442.
Cutter, S. L., 2010: Social science perspectives on hazards and vulnerability science. Geophysical Hazards: Minimizing Risk, Maximizing Awareness, T. Beer, Ed., Springer Netherlands, 17–30.
Deichmann, U., , Balk D. , , and Yetman G. , 2001: Transforming population data for interdisciplinary usages: From census to grid. Center for International Earth Science Information Network, Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center, Columbia University. 19 pp. [Available online at http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw-v2/GPWdocumentation.pdf.]
Dell’Acqua, F., , Gamba P. , , and Jaiswal K. , 2013: Spatial aspects of building and population exposure data and their implications for global earthquake exposure modeling. Nat. Hazards, 68, 1291–1309, doi:10.1007/s11069-012-0241-2.
Doswell, C. A., III, , Brooks H. E. , , and Dotzek N. , 2009: On the implementation of the Enhanced Fujita scale in the USA. Atmos. Res., 93, 554–563.
Fekete, A., 2012: Spatial disaster vulnerability and risk assessments: Challenges in their quality and acceptance. Nat. Hazards, 61, 1161–1178.
Field C. B., and Coauthors, Eds., 2012: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. Cambridge University Press, 582 pp.
Gillham, O., 2002: The Limitless City: A Primer on the Urban Sprawl Debate. Island Press, 309 pp.
Greene, R. P., , and Pick J. B. , 2012: Exploring the Urban Community: A GIS Approach. 2nd ed. Prentice Hall, 432 pp.
Greene, R. P., , and Pick J. B. , 2013: Shifting patterns of suburban dominance: The case of Chicago from 2000 to 2010. J. Maps, 9, 178–182.
Hall, S. G., , and Ashley W. S. , 2008: The effects of urban sprawl on the vulnerability to a significant tornado impact in northeastern Illinois. Nat. Hazards Rev., 9, 209–219.
Holt, J. B., , Lo C. P. , , and Hodler T. W. , 2004: Dasymetric estimation of population density areal interpolation of census data. Cartogr. Geogr. Inf. Sci., 31, 101–121.
Homeland Security, 2009: National Infrastructure Protection Plan. United States Department of Homeland Security, 175 pp. [Available online at http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/NIPP_Plan.pdf.]
Höppe, P., , and Pielke R. A. Jr., 2006: Workshop on Climate Change and Disaster Losses: Understanding and attributing trends and projections. Final Workshop Report, 266 pp. [Available online at http://cstpr.colorado.edu/sparc/research/projects/extreme_events/munich_workshop/full_workshop_report.pdf.]
Hudson, J., 2006: Chicago: A Geography of the City and Its Region. University of Chicago Press, 356 pp.
Kunkel, K. E., , Pielke R. A. , , and Changnon S. A. , 1999: Temporal fluctuations in weather and climate extremes that cause economic and human health impacts: A review. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80, 1077–1098.
Kunkel, K. E., and Coauthors, 2013: Monitoring and understanding trends in extreme storms: State of knowledge. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94, 499–514.
Lemon, L. R., , and Umscheid M. , 2008: The Greensburg, Kansas, tornadic storm: A storm of extremes. Preprints, 24th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Savannah, GA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P2.4. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/141811.pdf.]
Marshall, T. P., , Davis W. , , and Runnels S. , 2012: Damage survey of the Joplin tornado. Preprints, 26th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Nashville, TN, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 6.1. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/26SLS/webprogram/Manuscript/Paper211662/Joplinmerger.pdf.]
McCarthy, D., , and Schaefer J. , 2005: 2004 year in tornadoes: What a year it was! Extended Abstracts, 34th Conf. on Broadcast Meteorology, Washington, DC, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 2.1. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/WAFNWP34BC/techprogram/paper_95244.htm.]
McDonald, J., , and Mehta K. C. , 2006: A recommendation for an Enhanced Fujita scale (EF-Scale). Wind Science and Engineering Center, Texas Tech University, 111 pp. [Available online at http://www.depts.ttu.edu/nwi/Pubs/FScale/EFScale.pdf.]
McGranahan, D. A., , and Beale C. L. , 2002: Understanding rural population loss. Rural Amer.,17 (4), 2–11. [Available online at www.ers.usda.gov/publications/ruralamerica/ra174/ra174a.pdf.]
Mennis, J., 2002: Using geographic information systems to create and analyze statistical surfaces of population and risk for environmental justice analysis. Soc. Sci. Quart., 83, 281–297.
Morss, R., , Wilhelmi O. , , Meehl G. A. , , and Dilling L. , 2011: Improving societal outcomes of extreme weather in a changing climate: An integrated perspective. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour., 36, 1–25.
Nicholls, N., 2001: Atmospheric and climatic hazards: Improved monitoring and prediction for disaster mitigation. Nat. Hazards, 23, 137–155.
Nicholls, R. J., , and Small C. , 2002: Improved estimates of coastal population and exposure to hazards released. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 83, 301–305, doi:10.1029/2002EO000216.
NWS, 2011: Joplin tornado event summary. Springfield, MO, Weather Forecast Office. [Available online at http://www.crh.noaa.gov/sgf/?n=event_2011may22_summary.]
Openshaw, S., 1984: The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem. Concepts and Techniques in Modern Geography Series, Vol. 38, Geo Books, 41 pp. [Available online at http://qmrg.org.uk/files/2008/11/38-maup-openshaw.pdf.]
Paulikas, M. J., , and Ashley W. S. , 2011: Thunderstorm hazard vulnerability for the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan region. Nat. Hazards, 58, 1077–1092.
Peduzzi, P., , Chantenoux B. , , Dao H. , , De Bono A. , , Herold C. , , Kossin J. , , Mouton F. , , and Nordbeck O. , 2012: Global trends in tropical cyclone risk. Nat. Climate Change, 2, 289–294.
Pielke, R. A., Jr., 2007: Future economic damage from tropical cyclones: Sensitivities to societal and climate changes. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London,365A, 2717–2729.
Pinelli, J.-P., , Simiu E. , , Gurley K. , , Subramanian C. , , Zhang L. , , Cope A. , , Filliben J. , , and Hamid S. , 2004: Hurricane damage prediction model for residential structures. J. Struct. Eng., 130, 1685–1691.
Polsky, C., , Neff R. , , and Yarnal B. , 2007: Building comparable global change vulnerability assessments: The vulnerability scoping diagram. Global Environ. Change, 17, 472–485.
Rae, S., , and Stefkovich J. , 2000: The tornado damage risk assessment predicting the impact of a big outbreak in Dallas–Fort Worth, Texas. Extended Abstracts, 20th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Orlando, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 9.6. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/Sept2000/techprogram/paper_16405.htm.]
Remo, J. W. F., , Larson M. , , and Pinter N. , 2012: Hydraulic and flood-loss modeling of levee, floodplain, and river management strategies, middle Mississippi River, USA. Nat. Hazards, 61, 551–575.
SEDAC, cited 2011: U.S. Census grids. Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center, Columbia University. [Available online at http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/usgrid/.]
Simmons, K. M., , Sutter D. , , and Pielke R. Jr., 2013: Normalized tornado damage in the United States: 1950–2011. Environ. Hazards, 12, 132–147.
Speheger, D. A., , Doswell C. A. III, , and Stumpf G. J. , 2002: The tornadoes of 3 May 1999: Event verification in central Oklahoma and related issues. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 362–381.
Theobald, D. M., 2005: Landscape patterns of exurban growth in the USA from 1980 to 2020. Ecol. Soc.,10 (32). [Available online at http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol10/iss1/art32/.]
Trenberth, K., , Watson A. , , Pielke R. A. Jr., , Emanuel K. , , Curry J. , , Bouwer L. , , Hegerl G. C. , , and Hooke W. , cited 2011: Forum: Is extreme weather linked to global warming? Yale Environ. 360, 2 June 2011. [Available online at http://e360.yale.edu/feature/forum_is_extreme_weather_linked_to_global_warming/2411/.]
UNDP, 2004: Reducing disaster risk: A challenge for development. M. Pelling et al., Eds., United Nations Development Programme, Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, 146 pp. [Available online at http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/crisis%20prevention/disaster/asia_pacific/Reducing%20Disaster%20risk%20a%20Challenge%20for%20development.pdf.]
Wilson, S. G., , and Fischetti T. R. , 2010: Coastline population trends in the United States: 1960 to 2008. U.S. Census Bureau, P25-1139, 27 pp. [Available online at http://www.census.gov/prod/2010pubs/p25-1139.pdf.]
Wisner, B., , Blaikie P. , , Cannon T. , , and Davis I. , 2004: At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability, and Disasters. 2nd ed. Routledge, 496 pp.
Wu, S., , Qiu X. , , and Wang L. , 2005: Population estimation methods in GIS and remote sensing: A review. GIScience Remote Sens., 42, 80–96.
Wurman, J., , and Alexander C. , 2005: The 30 May 1998 Spencer, South Dakota, storm. Part II: Comparison of observed damage and radar-derived winds in the tornadoes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 97–119.
Wurman, J., , Alexander C. , , Robinson P. , , and Richardson Y. , 2007: Low-level winds in tornadoes and potential catastrophic tornado impacts in urban areas. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 31–46.
Yuan, M., , Dickens-Micozzi M. , , and Magsig M. A. , 2002: Analysis of tornado damage tracks from the 3 May tornado outbreak using multispectral satellite imagery. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 382–398.
Standard protocol for assessing accuracy and reliability of modeled data is to compare those data against “truth” data. In the absence of truth data, we are limited to assessing consistency by comparing source data at standard census enumerations. Ideally, we would verify the modeled data against finer-scale Census data. Unfortunately, the Census is unable to conduct special tabulations based on geographic coordinates, or for user-defined areas smaller than blocks.