The research reported here was funded by the following grants: NSF Grant ATM9312537, NOAA (Cooperative Institute) Grant NA37W0361, and ONR Grant N00014-95-1-1132. Computations were performed at the NCAR computer facility; NCAR is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.
Businger, J. A., J. C. Wungard, Y. Isumi, and E. F. Bradley, 1971: Flux profile relationship in the atmospheric surface layer. J. Atmos. Sci.,28, 181–189.
Goirala, R. K., and T. N. Krishnamurti, 1992: Rain rates based on SSM/I, OLR and raingauge data sets. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,50, 165–174.
Harshvardan, and T. G. Corsetti, 1984: Long-wave parameterization for the UCLA/GLAS GCM. NASA Tech. Memo. 86072, 51 pp. [Available from Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771.].
Kanamitsu, M., 1975: On numerical prediction over a global tropical belt. Dept. of Meteorology Rep. 75-1, 282 pp. [Available from Dept. of Meteorology, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-3034.].
——, K. Tada, K. Kudo, N. Sata, and S. Isa, 1983: Description of the JMA operational spectral model. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,61, 812–828.
Krishnamurti, T. N., S. Low-Nam, and R. Pasch, 1983: Cumulus parameterization and rainfall rates II. Mon. Wea. Rev.,111, 815–828.
——, J. Xue, H. S. Bedi, K. Ingles, and D. Oosterhof, 1991: Physical initialization for numerical weather prediction over the tropics. Tellus,43, 53–81.
——, G. D. Rohaly, and H. S. Bedi, 1994: On the improvement of precipitation forecast skill from physical initialization. Tellus,46A, 598–614.
Lacis, A. A., and J. E. Hansen, 1974: A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the earth’s atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.,31, 1889–1909.
Palmer, T. N., 1988: Medium and extended range predictability and stability of the Pacific/North American mode. Quart. J. Roy. Meter. Soc.,114, 691–731.
Spencer, R. W., 1993: Global oceanic precipitation from MSU during 1979–91 and comparison to other climatologies. J. Climate,6, 1301–1326.
Tiedke, M., 1984:. The sensitivity of the time-mean large-scale flow to cumulus convection in the ECMWF model. Proc. Workshop on Convection in Large-Scale Numerical Models, Reading, Unitd Kingdom, ECMWF, 297–316.
Toth, Z., and E. Kalnay, 1993: Ensemble forecasting at NMC: The generation of perturbations. Bull. Amer. Meter. Soc.,74, 2317–2330.
Tracton, M. S., and E. Kalnay, 1993: Operational ensemble prediction at the National Meteorological Center: Practical aspects. Wea. Forecasting,8, 147–153.
Wallace, J. M., S. Tibaldi, and A. J. Simmons, 1983: Reduction of systematic forecast errors in the ECMWF model through the introduction of envelope orography. Quart. J. Roy. Meter. Soc.,109, 683–718.