We would like to thank Kenneth Johnson, NWS Eastern Region, deputy chief, Scientific Services Division for his thorough initial review of this paper, which no doubt led to significant improvements. We are grateful to the anonymous reviewers and Dr. Steven E. Koch who played an important role in further clarifying and improving this paper. We are also grateful to Dr. John H. E. Clark and Dr. Gregory Forbes of The Pennsylvania State University; Jeff Waldstreicher, science and operations officer, NWS Binghamton, New York; and John LaCorte, forecaster, NWS State College, Pennsylvania; for their comments and initial review of this paper. We would also like to thank Ray Brady, senior forecaster NWS Binghamton, New York, for supplying some of the WSR-88D data for this study. This research was supported in part by UCAR Subaward S98-93857.
Barnes, S. L., 1985: Omega diagnostics as a supplement to the LFM/MOS guidance in weakly forced convective situations. Mon. Wea. Rev.,113, 2122–2141.
Bennetts, D. A., and B. J. Hoskins, 1979: Conditional symmetric instability—A possible explanation of frontal rainbands. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,105, 945–962.
——, and J. C. Sharp, 1982: The relevance of conditional symmetric instability to the prediction of mesoscale rainbands. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,108, 595–602.
Black, T. L., 1994: The new NMC mesoscale eta model: Description and forecast examples. Wea. Forecasting,9, 265–278.
Bluestein, H. B., 1993: Synoptic-Dynamic Meteorology in Midlatitudes. Vol. II, Observations and Theory of Weather Systems, Oxford University Press, 594 pp.
Bosart, L. F., 1975: SUNYA experimental results in forecasting daily temperature and precipitation. Mon. Wea. Rev.,103, 1013–1020.
Browning, K. A., 1985: Conceptual models of precipitation systems. Meteor. Mag.,114, 293–319.
Cahir, J. J., J. M. Norman, and D. A. Lowry, 1981: Use of a real-time computer graphics system in analysis and forecasting. Mon. Wea. Rev.,109, 485–500.
Carlson, T. N., 1980: Airflow through midlatitude cyclones and the comma cloud pattern. Mon. Wea. Rev.,108, 1498–1509.
Dankers, T., 1994: Observing CSI bands using the WSR-88D. Postprints, The First WSR-88D User’s Conference, Norman, OK, WSR-88D Operational Support Facility and NEXRAD Joint System Program Office, 159–168.
desJardines, M. L., K. F. Brill, and S. S. Schotz, 1991: GEMPAK user’s guide. NASA Tech. Memo. 4260, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2021 pp. [Available from NASA Code NTT-4, Washington, DC 20546-0001.].
Emanuel, K. A., 1979: Inertial instability and mesoscale convective systems. Part I: Linear theory of inertial instability in rotating viscous fields. J. Atmos. Sci.,36, 2425–2449.
——, 1985: Frontal circulations in the presence of small moist symmetric instability. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 1062–1071.
Grumm, R. H., and D. J. Nicosia, 1997: WSR-88D observations of mesoscale precipitation bands over Pennsylvania. Natl. Wea. Dig.,21, 10–23.
Hoskins, B. J., and F. P. Bretherton, 1972: Atmospheric frontogenesis models: Mathematical formulation and solution. J. Atmos. Sci.,29, 11–37.
Jascourt, S. D., S. S. Lindstrom, C. J. Seaman, and D. D. Houghton, 1988: An observation of banded convective development in the presence of weak symmetric stability. Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 175–191.
Klazura, G. E., and D. A. Imy, 1993: A description of the initial set of analysis products available from the NEXRAD WSR-88D system. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,74, 1293–1311.
Koch, S. E., 1984: The role of an apparent mesoscale frontogenetic circulation in squall line initiation. Mon. Wea. Rev.,112, 2090–2111.
Moore, J. T., and P. D. Blakeley, 1988: The role of frontogenetical forcing and conditional symmetric instability in the midwest snowstorm of 30–31 January 1982. Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 2155–2171.
——, and T. E. Lambert, 1993: The use of equivalent potential vorticity to diagnose regions of conditional symmetric instability. Wea. Forecasting,8, 301–308.
Neiman, P. J., M. A. Shapiro, and L. S. Fedor, 1993: The life cycle of an extratropical marine cyclone. Part II: Mesoscale structure and diagnostics. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 2177–2199.
Nicosia, D. J., 1995: Diagnosing quasi-geostrophic forcing using PC-GRIDDS: A case study. National Weather Service, Eastern Region Tech. Attachment 95-2B, 18 pp. [Available from National Weather Service, Eastern Region Headquarters, Scientific Services Division, Airport Corporate Center, 630 Johnson Ave., Bohemia, NY 11716.].
O’Handley, C., and L. F. Bosart, 1989: Subsynoptic structure in a major synoptic-scale cyclone. Mon. Wea. Rev.,117, 607–630.
Petterssen, S., 1956: Weather Analysis and Forecasting. Vol. 1, McGraw-Hill, 428 pp.
Reuter, G. W., and M. K. Yau, 1990: Observations of slantwise convective instability in winter cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev.,118, 447–458.
Ruscher, P. H., and T. P. Condo, 1996: Development of a rapidly deepening extratropical cyclone over land. Part II: thermodynamical aspects and the role of frontogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev.,124, 1633–1647.
Sanders, F., 1973: Skill in forecasting daily temperature and precipitation: Some experimental results. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,54, 1171–1179.
——, 1986: Frontogenesis and symmetric instability in a major New England snowstorm. Mon. Wea. Rev.,114, 1847–1862.
——, and L. F. Bosart, 1985: Mesoscale structure in the Megalopolitan snowstorm of 11–12 February 1983. Part I: Frontogenetical forcing and symmetric instability. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 1050–1061.
Seaman, C. J., 1994: A numerical study of nonlinear nonhydrostatic conditional symmetric instability in a convectively unstable atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 1352–1371.
Shields, M. T., R. M. Rauber, and M. K. Ramamurthy, 1991: Dynamical forcing and mesoscale organization of precipitation bands in a midwest winter cyclonic storm. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 936–964.
Snook, J. S., 1992: Current techniques for real-time evaluation of conditional symmetric instability. Wea. Forecasting,7, 430–439.
Wiesmueller, J. L., and R. H. Brady, 1993: A mid-Atlantic states rain event: A review and comparison of techniques for assessing vertical motion fields. Natl. Wea. Dig.,18, 31–54.
——, and S. M Zubrick, 1998: Evaluation and application of conditional symmetric instability, equivalent potential vorticity, and frontogenetic forcing in an operational forecast environment. Wea. Forecasting,13, 84–101.
Wolfsberg, D. G., K. A. Emanuel, and R. E. Passarelli, 1986: Band formation in a New England snowstorm. Mon. Wea. Rev.,114, 1552–1569.
——, 1989: Extended Sawyer–Eliassen equation for frontal circulations in the presence of small viscous moist symmetric stability. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 2671–2683.