The authors are grateful to Richard Moffet and Sylvie Gravel for their support in using the GEM code, and to Marie-France Turcotte for her help in using the SCW forecasting codes. Andre Tremblay is thanked for his advice and careful reviews of the manuscript. This work was supported by the Canadian National Search and Rescue Secretariat.
CMC, cited 1998: Verification of objective forecasts of weather elements. [Available online at http://www.cmc.ec.gc.ca/∼cmsw/cmsw/revue/html/elements/html/liste_an.html.].
Cober, S. G., G. A. Isaac, and J. W. Strapp, 1995: Aircraft icing measurements in East Coast winter storms. J. Appl. Meteor.,34, 88–100.
——, ——, A. V. Korolev, J. W. Strapp, and D. L. Marcotte, 1999:Measurements of aircraft icing environments which include supercooled large drops. 37th Aerospace Sci. Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, AIAA 99–0494.
Côté, J., J. Desmarais, S. Gravel, A. Méthot, A. Patoine, M. Roch, and A. Staniforth, 1998a: The operational CMC–MRB Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model. Part II: Results. Mon. Wea. Rev.,126, 1397–1418.
——, S. Gravel, A. Méthot, A. Patoine, M. Roch, and A. Staniforth, 1998b: The operational CMC–MRB Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model. Part I: Design considerations and formulation. Mon. Wea. Rev.,126, 1373–1395.
Doswell, C. A., R. Davies-Jones, and D. L. Keller, 1990: On summary measures of skill in rare event forecasting based on contingency tables. Wea. Forecasting,5, 576–585.
Flueck, J. A., 1987: A study of some measures of forecast verification. Preprints, 10th Conf. on Probability and Statistics in Atmospheric Sciences, Edmonton, AB, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 69–73.
Forbes, G. S., Y. Hu, B. G. Brown, B. C. Bernstein, and M. K. Politovich, 1993: Examination of conditions in the proximity of pilot reports of icing during STORM-FEST. Preprints, Fifth Int. Conf. on Aviation Weather Systems, Vienna, VA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 282–286.
Isaac, G. A., S. G. Cober, A. V. Korolev, J. W. Strapp, A. Tremblay, and D. L. Marcotte, 1998: Overview of the Canadian Freezing Drizzle Experiment I, II and III. Preprints, Cloud Physics Conf., Everett, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 447–450.
——, ——, ——, ——, ——, and ——, 1999: Canadian Freezing Drizzle Experiment. 37th Aerospace Sci. Meeting and Exhibit. Reno, NV, AIAA 99-0492.
Knapp, D. I., 1992: Comparison of various icing analysis and forecasting techniques. Verification Rep., Air Force Global Weather Center, 5 pp. [Available from Air Force Global Weather Center, 106 Peacekeeper Dr., Offutt AFB, NE 68113-4039.].
Korolev, A. V., J. W. Strapp, G. A. Isaac, and A. N. Nevzorov, 1998:The Nevzorov airborne hot-wire LWC-TWC probe: Principle of operation and performance characteristics. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,15, 1495–1510.
Mason, I., 1982: A model for assessment of weather forecasts. Aust. Meteor. Mag.,30, 291–303.
Moninger, W. R., and Coauthors, 1991: Shootout–89, a comparative evaluation of knowledge-based systems that forecast severe weather. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,72, 1339–1354.
Panofsky, H. A., and G. W. Brier, 1965: Some Applications of Statistics to Meteorology. Pennsylvania State University Press, 224 pp.
Rasmussen, R., and Coauthors, 1992: Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,73, 951–974.
Schultz, P., and M. Politovich, 1992: Toward the improvement of aircraft icing forecasts for the continental United States. Wea. Forecasting,7, 491–500.
Sundqvist, H., E. Berge, and J. E. Krisjansson, 1989: Condensation and cloud parameterization studies with a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. Mon. Wea. Rev.,117, 1641–1657.
Tremblay, A., A. Glazer, W. Szyrmer, G. A. Isaac, and I. Zawadzki, 1995: Forecasting of supercooled clouds. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 2098–2113.
——, S. G. Cober, A. Glazer, and G. A. Isaac, 1996: An intercomparison of mesoscale forecasts of aircraft icing using SSM/I retrievals. Wea. Forecasting,11, 66–77.
Wilks, D. S., 1995: Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences. Academic Press, 467 pp.
Yu, W., L. Garand, and A. P. Dastoor, 1997: Evaluation of model clouds and radiation at 100 km scale using GOES data. Tellus,49A, 246–262.