Funding for this research is from the Collaborative Science, Technology, and Applied Research (CSTAR) Program of NOAA under Grant NA03-NWS4680019. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of NOAA or its subagencies. The authors wish to thank Norman W. Junker formerly of NOAA/NCEP/HPC and David Schultz of NSSL/CIMMS/OU for their insightful comments on previous versions of the manuscript. The authors are also grateful for the comments provided by three anonymous reviewers.
Barnes, S. L., 1973: Mesoscale objective analysis using weighted time-series observations. NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory Tech. Rep. ERL NSSL-62, 60 pp. [NTIS Com-73-10781.].
Diamond, M., , and Lowry W. , 1954: Correlation of density of new snow with 700 millibar temperature. J. Meteor., 11 , 512–513.
Doesken, N., , and Judson A. , 1996: The Snow Booklet: A Guide to the Science, Climatology, and. Measurement of Snow in the United States. Colorado State University, 86 pp.
Grant, L., , and Rhea J. , 1974: Elevation and meteorological controls on the density of snow. Interdisciplinary Symp. on Advanced Concepts and Techniques in the Study of Snow and Ice Resources, Monterey, CA, National Academy of Science, 169–181.
Judson, A., , and Doesken N. , 2000: Density of freshly fallen snow in the central Rocky Mountains. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81 , 1577–1587.
Kind, R., 1981: Snow drifting. Handbook of Snow: Principles, Processes, Management, and Use, D. Gray and D. Male, Eds., Pergamon Press, 338–359.
Koch, S. E., , desJardins M. , , and Kocin P. J. , 1983: An interactive Barnes objective map analysis scheme for use with satellite and conventional data. J. Appl. Meteor., 22 , 1487–1503.
LaChapelle, E., 1962: The density distribution of new snow. USDA Forest Service Tech. Rep. 2, Wasatch National Forest, Alta Avalanche Study Center, Project F, Salt Lake City, UT, 13 pp.
Larson, L., , and Peck E. , 1974: Accuracy of precipitation measurements for hydrologic modeling. Water Resour. Res., 10 , 857–862.
Lott, N., 1993: Water equivalent vs. rain gauge measurements from the March 1993 Blizzard. NCDC Tech. Rep. 93-03, 13 pp. [Available online at http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/techrpts/tr9303/tr9303.eps].
Magono, C., , and Lee C. , 1966: Meteorological classification of natural snow crystals. J. Fac. Sci., Hokkaido University, II , (Series VII). 321–335.
Meister, R., 1986: Density of new snow and its dependence on air temperature and wind. Proceedings of the Workshop on the Correction of Precipitation Measurements, B. Sevruk, Ed., Eidgenossissche Technische Hochschule, 73–80.
Potter, J. G., 1965: Water content of freshly fallen snow. Meteorology Branch, Dept. of Transport, CIR-4232, TEC-569, Toronto, ON, Canada, 12 pp. [Available from National Snow and Ice Data Center User Services, University of Colorado, Campus Box 449, Boulder, CO 80309-0449.].
Roebber, P., , Bruening S. , , Schultz D. , , and Cortinas J. , 2003: Improving snowfall forecasting by diagnosing snow density. Wea. Forecasting, 18 , 264–287.
Super, A., , and Holroyd E. , 1997: Snow accumulation algorithm for the WSR-88D radar: Second annual report. U.S. Dept. of Interior Tech. Rep. Bureau Reclamation R-97-05, Denver, CO, 77 pp. [Available from National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161.].
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1996: Supplemental observations. Part IV, National Weather Service Observing Handbook No. 7, Surface Weather Observations and Reports, National Weather Service, Silver Spring, MD, 57 pp.