We thank the National Science Foundation of China for supporting a general project (adjoint sensitivity analyses on the influence factors in the intensity change of typhoon; Grant 40605018), the Chinese Academy of Sciences for an innovation research project (application of nonlinear optimum method to studies of weather and climate predictabilities; Grant KZCX3-SW-230), and the National Science Foundation of China for a general project (mechanism analysis of subseasonal weather and climate characteristics in Yangtze and Huaihe river basins during warm-season; Grant 40475044).
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