We thank Joseph Schaefer for supplying us with the Storm Prediction Center tornado archive, William Lerner for sharing NOAA’s tornado warning verification archive with us, and NOAA for financial assistance. Xiaoyi Mu, Ying Xiao, Xiujian Chen, and Abby Schroeder provided excellent research assistance. An earlier draft of this paper was presented at the Natural Hazards Researchers Workshop and we thank participants there for many helpful comments.
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