We thank Joseph Schaefer for supplying us with the Storm Prediction Center tornado archive, William Lerner for sharing NOAA’s tornado warning verification archive with us, and NOAA for financial assistance. Xiaoyi Mu, Ying Xiao, Xiujian Chen, and Abby Schroeder provided excellent research assistance. An earlier draft of this paper was presented at the Natural Hazards Researchers Workshop and we thank participants there for many helpful comments.
Anbarci, N., , Escaleras M. , , and Register C. A. , 2005: Earthquake fatalities: The interaction of nature and political economy. J. Public Econ., 89 , 1907–1933.
Brooks, H. E., , and Doswell C. A. III, 2002: Deaths in the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City tornado from a historical perspective. Wea. Forecasting, 17 , 354–361.
Doswell C. A. III, , , and Burgess D. W. , 1988: On some issues of United States climatology. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116 , 495–501.
Golden, J. H., , and Adams C. R. , 2000: The tornado problem: Forecast, warning, and response. Nat. Hazards Rev., 1 , 107–118.
Hammer, B., , and Schmidlin T. W. , 2002: Response to warnings during the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City tornado: Reasons and relative injury rates. Wea. Forecasting, 17 , 577–581.
Kahn, M. E., 2005: The death toll from natural disasters: The role of income, geography, and institutions. Rev. Econ. Stat., 87 , 271–284.
National Academy of Sciences, cited. 2006: Weather radar technology beyond NEXRAD. [Available online at http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309084660/html/1.html.].
National Severe Storms Laboratory, cited. 2006: New radar technology can increase tornado warning lead times. [Available online at http://www.norman.noaa.gov/publicaffairs/backgrounders/backgrounder_par.html.].
Schmidlin, T. W., , Hammer B. , , and Knabe J. , 2001: Tornado shelters in mobile home parks in the United States. J. Amer. Soc. Prof. Emergency Planners, 8 , 1–15.
Simmons, K. M., , and Sutter D. , 2005a: Protection from nature’s fury: An analysis of fatalities and injuries from F5 tornadoes. Nat. Hazards Rev., 6 , 82–87.
Simmons, K. M., , and Sutter D. , 2005b: WSR-88D radar, tornado warnings, and tornado casualties. Wea. Forecasting, 20 , 301–310.
Viscusi, W. K., , Vernon J. M. , , and Harrington J. E. Jr., 2000: Economics of Regulation and Antitrust. 3rd ed. The MIT Press, 864 pp.