The authors thank Drs. Michael Biggerstaff and Frederick Carr of the School of Meteorology for providing feedback while this work was in the form of the first author’s M.S. thesis. The authors would also like to thank the two anonymous reviewers who provided constructive feedback on the original version of this manuscript. This work is supported by the Engineering Research Centers Program of the National Science Foundation under NSF Award 0313747. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Science Foundation.
Adlerman, E. J., , and Drogemeier K. K. , 2005: The dependence of numerically simulated cyclic mesocyclogenesis upon environmental vertical wind shear. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 3595–3623.
Atkins, N. T., , Arnott J. M. , , Przybylinski R. W. , , Wolf R. A. , , and Ketcham B. D. , 2004: Vortex structure and evolution within bow echoes. Part I: Single-Doppler and damage analysis of the 29 June 1998 derecho. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 2224–2242.
Bharadwaj, N., , and Chandrasekar V. , 2005: Waveform design for CASA X-band radars. Preprints, 32nd Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Albuquerque, NM, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P10R.13. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/96347.pdf.]
Bluestein, H. B., 1993: Observations and Theory of Weather Systems. Vol. 2, Synoptic–Dynamic Meteorology in Midlatitudes, Oxford University Press, 594 pp.
Bluestein, H. B., , and Jain M. H. , 1985: Formation of mesoscale lines of precipitation: Severe squall lines in Oklahoma during the spring. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 1711–1732.
Bluestein, H. B., , and Parker S. S. , 1993: Modes of isolated, severe convective storm formation along the dryline. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 1354–1372.
Bluestein, H. B., , French M. M. , , Tanamachi R. L. , , Frasier S. , , Hardwick K. , , Junyent F. , , and Pazmany A. , 2007: Close-range observations of tornadoes in supercells made with a dual-polarization, X-band, mobile Doppler radar. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 1522–1543.
Bringi, V. N., , and Chandrasekar V. , 2001: Polarimetric Doppler Weather Radar: Principles and Applications. Cambridge University Press, 636 pp.
Brock, F. V., , Crawford K. C. , , Elliott R. L. , , Cuperus G. W. , , Stadler S. J. , , Johnson H. L. , , and Eilts M. D. , 1995: The Oklahoma Mesonet: A technical overview. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 12, 5–19.
Davies-Jones, R. P., , Burgess D. W. , , and Foster M. , 1990: Test of helicity as a forecast parameter. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Kananaskis Park, AB, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 588–592.
Gilmore, M. S., , Straka J. M. , , and Rasmussen E. N. , 2004: Precipitation uncertainty due to variations in precipitation particle parameters within a simple microphysics scheme. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 2610–2627.
Junyent, F., , Chandrasekar V. , , McLaughlin D. , , Insanic E. , , and Bharadwaj N. , 2010: The CASA Integrated Project 1 networked radar system. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 27, 61–78.
Kumjian, M. R., , and Ryzhkov A. V. , 2009: Storm-relative helicity revealed from polarimetric radar measurements. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 667–685.
Liu, Y., , and Bringi V. N. , 2006: Improved rain attenuation correction algorithms for radar reflectivity and differential reflectivity with adaptation to drop shape model variation. Proc. Int. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symp., Denver, CO, IEEE, 1910–1913.
McLaughlin, D., and Coauthors, 2009: Short-wavelength technology and the potential for distributed networks of small radar systems. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, 1797–1817.
McPherson, R. A., and Coauthors, 2007: Statewide monitoring of the mesoscale environment: A technical update on the Oklahoma Mesonet. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 24, 301–321.
NWS Norman WFO, cited 2011: Storm data and unusual weather phenomena—April 2010. [Available online at http://www.srh.noaa.gov/images/oun/pdf/stormdata/oun201004.pdf.]
Przybylinski, R. W., 1995: The bow echo: Observations, numerical simulations, and severe weather detection methods. Wea. Forecasting, 10, 203–218.
Przybylinski, R. W., , Schmocker G. K. , , and Lin Y.-J. , 2000: A study of storm and vortex morphology during the intensifying stage of severe wind mesoscale convective systems. Preprints, 20th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Orlando, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 173–176.
Romine, G. S., , Burgess D. W. , , and Wilhelmson R. B. , 2008: A dual-polarization-radar-based assessment of the 8 May 2003 Oklahoma City area tornadic supercell. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 2849–2870.
Ryzhkov, A. V., , Zrnic D. S. , , Hubbert J. C. , , Bringi V. N. , , Vivekanandan J. , , and Brandes E. A. , 2002: Polarimetric radar observations and interpretation of co-cross-polar correlation coefficients. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 19, 340–354.
Smith, B. T., , Thompson R. L. , , Grams J. S. , , and Broyles C. , 2010: Climatology of convective modes associated with significant severe thunderstorms in the contiguous United States. Preprints, 25th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Denver, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 16B.6. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/175727.pdf.]
Snook, N., , and Xue M. , 2008: Effects of microphysical drop size distribution on tornadogenesis in supercell thunderstorms. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L24803, doi:10.1029/2008GL035866.
Snyder, J. C., , Bluestein H. B. , , Zhang G. , , and Frasier S. J. , 2010: Attenuation correction and hydrometeor classification of high-resolution, X-band, dual-polarized mobile radar measurements in severe convective storms. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 27, 1979–2001.
Trabal, J. M., , Chandrasekar V. , , Gorgucci E. , , and McLaughlin D. J. , 2009: Differential reflectivity (ZDR) calibration for CASA Radar Network using properties of the observed medium. Proc. Int. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symp., Cape Town, South Africa, IEEE, II-960–II-963.
Trapp, R. J., , Tessendorf S. A. , , Godfrey E. S. , , and Brooks H. E. , 2005: Tornadoes from squall lines and bow echoes. Part I: Climatological distribution. Wea. Forecasting, 20, 23–34.
Wakimoto, R. M., , Murphey H. V. , , Davis C. A. , , and Atkins N. T. , 2006: High winds generated by bow echoes. Part II: The relationship between the mesovortices and damaging straightline winds. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 2813–2829.
Weisman, M. L., , and Trapp R. J. , 2003: Low-level mesovortices within squall lines and bow echoes. Part I: Overview and sensitivity to environmental vertical wind shear. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 2779–2803.