The authors thank the three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments that helped improve the manuscript.
ACSA, cited 2010: Cape Town International Airport, aircraft statistics. Airports Company South Africa. [Available online at www.acsa.co.za.]
Ahrens, C. D., 2000: Meteorology Today. Brooks/Cole, 528 pp.
ATNS, 2009: New radar statistics. Air Traffic and Navigation Services Standard Rep. ATM DIR 4/2009, ATM DIR 5/2009, and ATM DIR 7/2009.
Baars, J. A., , Witiw M. , , and Al-Habash A. , 2003: Determining fog type in the Los Angeles basin using historic surface observation data. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Probability and Statistics in the Atmospheric Sciences/13th Symp. on Global Change and Climate Variations, Long Beach, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J3.8. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/29133.pdf.]
Carter, T. J., 2005: The evolution of coastal lows along the south coast of South Africa. M.S. dissertation, Dept. of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South Africa, 165 pp.
Civil Aviation Authority, 2007: Operations specifications template. Form CA ACC-F-011. [Available online at www.caa.co.za.]
Croft, P. J., , Pfost R. L. , , Medlin J. M. , , and Johnson G. A. , 1997: Fog forecasting for the southern region: A conceptual model approach. Wea. Forecasting, 12, 545–556.
Demarcq, H., , Barlow R. G. , , and Shillington F. A. , 2010: Climatology and variability of sea surface temperature and surface chlorophyll in the Benguela and Agulhas ecosystems as observed by satellite imagery. Afr. J. Mar. Sci., 25, 363–372, doi:10.2989/18142320309504022.
Glickman, T., Ed., 2000: Glossary of Meteorology. 2nd ed. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 855 pp.
Hyvärinen, O., , Julkunen J. , , and Nietosvaara V. , 2007: Climatological tools for low visibility forecasting. Pure Appl. Geophys., 164, 1383–1396.
ICAO, 2001: International standards and recommended practices: Attachment E. Annex 3 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, International Civil Aviation Organization.
ICAO, 2010: Technical specifications related to meteorological observations and reports: Appendix 3. Annex 3 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation: Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation, 17th ed. International Civil Aviation Organization, APP 3-1–APP 3-5.
Kohonen, T., 2001: Self-Organizing Maps. 3rd ed. Springer, 511 pp.
Kohonen, T., , Hynninen J. , , Kangas J. , , and Laaksonen J. , 1996: SOM_PAK: The Self-Organizing Map Program package. Laboratory of Computer and Information Science Tech. Rep. A31, Helsinki University of Technology.
MeteoGraphics, 2010: Terra3D visualization software with bing terrain layer. MeteoGraphics. [Available at www.meteographics.de.]
Miao, Y., , Potts R. , , Huang X. , , Elliott G. , , and Rivett R. , 2012: A fuzzy logic fog forecasting model for Perth Airport. Pure Appl. Geophys.,169, 1107–1119, doi:10.1007/s00024-011-0351-x.
Olivier, J., , and Van Heerden J. , 1999: The South African Fog Water Collection Project. Water Research Commission Rep. 671/1/99., 149 pp. [Available from Library and Publications Division, Private Bag X03, Gezina 0031, South Africa.]
Pilié, R. J., , Mack E. J. , , Kocmond W. C. , , Rogers C. W. , , and Eadie W. J. , 1975: The life cycle of valley fog. Part I: Micrometeorological characteristics. J. Appl. Meteor., 14, 347–373.
Pilié, R. J., , Mack E. J. , , Kocmond W. C. , , Rogers C. W. , , and Katz U. , 1979: The formation of marine fog and the development of fog-stratus systems along the California coast. J. Appl. Meteor., 18, 1275–1286.
Reusch, D. B., , Alley R. B. , , and Hewitson B. C. , 2005: Relative performance of self-organizing maps and principal component analysis in pattern extraction from synthetic climatological data. Polar Geogr., 29, 188–212.
SAWB, 1968: Aeronautical climatological summaries, 1957–1964. WB31, South African Weather Bureau, Pretoria, South Africa, 73 pp.
SAWB, 1996: Regional description of the weather and climate of South Africa: The weather and climate of the extreme south-western Cape. South African Weather Bureau, Pretoria, South Africa, 39 pp.
SAWS, 2010: Aeronautical climatological summaries, 1996–2010. Cape Town International Airport. CLS-CI-AERO-SUM-FACT-2010.001.2, South African Weather Service, Pretoria, South Africa, 30 pp.
Steyn, A. G. W., , Smit C. F. , , Du Toit S. H. C. , , and Strasheim C. , 1994: Modern Statistics in Practice. J. L. Van Schaik, 761 pp.
Tardif, R., 2004: Characterizing fog occurrences in the northeastern United States using historical data. Preprints, 11th Conf. on Aviation, Range, and Aerospace Meteorology, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P10.6. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/81650.pdf.]
Tardif, R., , and Rasmussen R. M. , 2007: Event-based climatology and typology of fog in the New York City region. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 46, 1141–1168.
Tennant, W., , and Hewitson B. C. , 2002: Intra-seasonal rainfall characteristics and their importance to the seasonal prediction problem. Int. J. Climatol., 22, 1033–1048.
Van Schalkwyk, L., 2011: Fog forecasting at Cape Town International Airport: A climatological approach. M.S. dissertation, Dept. of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology, University of Pretoria, 133 pp.
Weather Underground, cited 2010: Historic METAR data downloads. [Available online at www.wunderground.com.]
World Airports, cited 2010: Cape Town International Airport, O.R. Tambo International Airport. [Available online at www.azworldairports.com.]