The first modern numerical weather prediction (NWP) models were developed for the computer that was announced in 1932 at the Institute for Advanced Study, in Princeton, New Jersey. Within 3 yr three agencies of the United States Government jointly created a numerical weather prediction service, but it was quickly discovered that current models had very serious defects. After considerable research, the first operationally effective model was achieved in 1958—a barotropic model covering most of the Northern Hemisphere. Over the years, models have evolved through multilevel filtered equation models and several primitive equation models. Analysis and data assimilation systems necessary for timeliness were also developed, and have likewise evolved. The result has been a revolution in weather forecasting.

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