We wish to thank Mr. Ken Glasson of the Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre for his superlative engineering work in developing and deploying the C-pol radar for the Maritime Continent Thunderstorm Experiment. We also thank Mr. John Lutz and Dr. Jeffrey Keeler of the National Center for Atmospheric Research for their efforts in improving the performance of the C-pol radar. We acknowledge Dr. Tsutomu Takahashi for providing the analyzed videosonde data. The support of the Tiwi Land Council in undertaking MCTEX is acknowledged. We would like to recognize helpful discussions regarding propagation effects in polarimetric radar data with Drs. Peter May, Dusan Zrnić, V. N. Bringi, and Anthony Illingworth. This research was supported by NASA TRMM Grants NAG 5-2692 and NAG5-4754 and NSF Grant ATM-9726464.
Atlas, D., and H. C. Banks, 1951: The interpretation of microwave reflections from rainfall. J. Meteor.,8, 271–282.
Aydin, K., and V. Giridhar, 1992: C-band dual-polarization radar observables in rain. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,9, 383–390.
Aydin, K., Y. Zhao, and T. A. Seliga, 1989: Rain-induced attenuation effects on C-band dual-polarization meteorological radars. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.,27, 57–66.
Balakrishnan, N., and D. S. Zrnić, 1989: Correction of propagation effects at attenuating wavelengths in polarimetric radars. Preprints, 24th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Tallahassee, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 287–291.
Balakrishnan, N., and D. S. Zrnić, 1990: Estimation of rain and hail rates in mixed-phase precipitation. J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 565–583.
Barber, P., and C. Yeh, 1975: Scattering of electromagnetic waves by arbitrarily shaped dielectric bodies. Appl. Opt.,14, 2864–2872.
Beard, K. V., D. B. Johnson, and D. Baumgardner, 1986: Aircraft observations of large raindrops in warm, shallow, convective clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett.,13, 991–994.
Bolen, S., V. N. Bringi, and V. Chandrasekar, 1998: An optimal area approach to intercomparing polarimetric radar rain-rate algorithms with gauge data. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,15, 605– 623.
Bringi, V. N., and A. Hendry, 1990: Technology of polarization diversity radars for meteorology. Radar in Meteorology: Battan Memorial and 40th Anniversary Radar Meteorology Conference, D. Atlas, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 153–190.
Bringi, V. N., V. Chandrasekar, N. Balakrishnan, and D. S. Zrnić, 1990: An examination of propagation effects in rainfall on radar measurements at microwave frequencies. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,7, 829–840.
Bringi, V. N., V. Chandrasekar, P. Meischner, J. Hubbert, and Y. Golestani, 1991: Polarimetric radar signatures of precipitation at S- and C-bands. IEE Proc. F,138, 109–119.
Carey, L. D., 1999: On the relationship between precipitation and lightning as revealed by multiparameter radar observations. Ph.D. dissertation, Colorado State University, 238 pp.
Carey, L. D., and S. A. Rutledge, 2000: The relationship between precipitation and lightning in tropical island convection: A C-band polarimetric radar study. Mon. Wea. Rev.,128, 2687–2710.
Gorgucci, E., G. Scarchilli, and V. Chandrasekar, 1996: Error structure of radar rainfall measurement at C-band frequencies with dual polarization algorithm for attenuation correction. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 26461–26472.
Gorgucci, E., G. Scarchilli, V. Chandrasekar, P. F. Meischner, and M. Hagen, 1998: Intercomparison of techniques to correct for attenuation of C-band weather radar signals. J. Appl. Meteor.,37, 845–853.
Green, A. W., 1975: An approximation for the shape of large raindrops. J. Appl. Meteor.,14, 1578–1583.
Gunn, K. L. S., and T. W. R. East, 1954: The microwave properties of precipitation particles. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,80, 522– 545.
Hildebrand, P. H., 1978: Iterative correction for attenuation of 5 cm radar in rain. J. Appl. Meteor.,17, 508–514.
Hitschfeld, W., and J. Bordan, 1954: Errors inherent in the radar measurement of rainfall at attenuating wavelengths. J. Meteor.,11, 58–67.
Holt, A. R., 1988: Extraction of differential propagation phase from data from S-band circularly polarized radars. Electron. Lett.,24, 1241–1242.
Hubbert, J., and V. N. Bringi, 1995: An iterative filtering technique for the analysis of copolar differential phase and dual-frequency radar measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,12, 643–648.
Hubbert, J., and V. N. Bringi, 1997: The effects of 3-body scattering on differential reflectivity. Preprints, 28th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Austin, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 11–12.
Hubbert, J., V. Chandrasekar, V. N. Bringi, P. Meischner, 1993: Processing and interpretation of coherent dual-polarized radar measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,10, 155–164.
Illingworth, A. J., J. W. Goddard, and S. M. Cherry, 1987: Polarization radar studies of precipitation development in convective storms. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,113, 469–489.
Jameson, A. R., 1991a: Polarization radar measurements in rain at 5 and 9 GHz. J. Appl. Meteor.,30, 1500–1513.
Jameson, A. R., 1991b: A comparison of microwave techniques for measuring rainfall. J. Appl. Meteor.,30, 32–54.
Jameson, A. R., 1992: The effect of temperature on attenuation-correction schemes in rain using polarization propagation differential phase shift. J. Appl. Meteor.,31, 1106–1118.
Jameson, A. R., and E. A. Mueller, 1985: Estimation of differential phase shift from sequential orthogonal linear polarization radar measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,2, 133–137.
Johnson, B. C., and E. A. Brandes, 1987: Attenuation of a 5-cm wavelength radar signal in the Lahoma–Orienta storms. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,4, 512–517.
Johnson, D. B., 1982: The role of giant and ultragiant aerosol particles in warm rain initiation. J. Atmos. Sci.,39, 448–460.
Joss, V. J., and A. Waldvogel, 1967: Ein spectograph fur Niederschlagstropher mit automatischer auswertung. Pure Appl. Geophys.,68, 240–246.
Keenan, T. D., and Coauthors, 1994: Science Plan—Maritime Continent Thunderstorm Experiment. BMRC Research Rep. 44, 61 pp. [Available from Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, P.O. Box 1289K, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia.].
Keenan, T. D., R. Carbone, S. Rutledge, J. Wilson, G. Holland, and P. May, 1996: The Maritime Continent Thunderstorm Experiment (MCTEX): Overview and initial results. Preprints, Seventh Conf. on Mesoscale Processes, Reading, United Kingdom, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 326–328.
Keenan, T. D., K. Glasson, F. Cummings, T. S. Bird, J. Keeler, and J. Lutz, 1998: The BMRC/NCAR C-band polarimetric (C-POL) radar system. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,15, 871–886.
Keenan, T. D., L. D. Carey, D. S. Zrnić, and P. T. May, 2000: Sensitivity of 5-cm wavelength polarimetric radar variables to raindrop axial ratio and drop size distribution. J. Appl. Meteor., in press.
May, P. T., T. D. Keenan, D. S. Zrnić, L. D. Carey, and S. A. Rutledge, 1999: Polarimetric radar measurements of tropical rain at a 5-cm wavelength. J. Appl. Meteor.,38, 750–765.
Mohr, C. G., 1986: Merger of mesoscale data sets into a common Cartesian format for efficient and systematic analyses. J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol.,3, 143–161.
Oguchi, T., 1983: Electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering in rain and other hydrometeors. IEEE Proc.,71, 1029–1078.
Oye, R., and R. E. Carbone, 1981: Interactive Doppler editing software. Proc. 20th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Boston, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 683–689.
Pointin, Y. C., C. Ramond, and J. Fournet-Fayard, 1988: Radar differential reflectivity Zdr: A real case evaluation of errors induced by antenna characteristic. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,5, 416– 423.
Pruppacher, H. R., and K. V. Beard, 1970: A wind tunnel investigation of the internal circulation and shape of water drops falling at terminal velocity in air. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,96, 247– 256.
Rauber, R. M., K. V. Beard, and B. M. Andrews, 1991: A mechanism for giant raindrop formation in warm, shallow, convective clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,48, 1791–1797.
Ray, P. S., 1972: Broad-band complex refractive indices of ice and water. Appl. Opt.,11, 1836–1844.
Ryde, J. W., 1946: The attenuation and radar echoes produced at centimetre wavelengths by various meteorological phenomena. Meteorological Factors in Radio Wave Propagation, Physical Society, 169–189.
Ryzhkov, A. V., and D. S. Zrnić, 1994: Precipitation observed in Oklahoma mesoscale convective systems with a polarimetric radar. J. Appl. Meteor.,33, 455–464.
Ryzhkov, A. V., and D. S. Zrnić, 1995a: Precipitation and attenuation measurements at a 10-cm wavelength. J. Appl. Meteor.,34, 2121–2134.
Ryzhkov, A. V., and D. S. Zrnić, 1995b: Comparison of dual-polarization radar estimators of rain. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,12, 249–256.
Ryzhkov, A. V., and D. S. Zrnić, 1996a: Rain in shallow and deep convection measured with a polarimetric radar. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 2989–2995.
Ryzhkov, A. V., and D. S. Zrnić, 1996b: Assessment of rainfall measurement that uses specific differential phase. J. Appl. Meteor.,35, 2080–2090.
Ryzhkov, A. V., and D. S. Zrnić, 1998a: Beamwidth effects on the differential phase measurements of rain. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,15, 624–634.
Ryzhkov, A. V., and D. S. Zrnić, 1998b: Polarimetric rainfall estimation in the presence of anomalous propagation. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,15, 1320–1330.
Ryzhkov, A. V., D. S. Zrnić, and D. Atlas, 1997: Polarimetrically tuned R(Z) relations and comparisons of radar rainfall methods. J. Appl. Meteor.,36, 340–349.
Scarchilli, G., E. Gorgucci, V. Chandrasekar, and T. A. Seliga, 1993:Rainfall estimation using polarimetric techniques at C-band frequencies. J. Appl. Meteor.,32, 1150–1160.
Shepherd, G. W., J. Searson, A. Pallot, and C. G. Collier, 1995: The performance of a C-band weather radar during a line convection event. Meteor. Appl.,2, 65–69.
Smyth, T. J., and A. J. Illingworth, 1998: Correction for attenuation of radar reflectivity using polarisation data. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,124, 2393–2415.
Szumowski, M. J., R. M. Rauber, H. T. Ochs III, and K. V. Beard, 1998: The microphysical structure and evolution of Hawaiian rainband clouds. Part II: Aircraft measurements within rainbands containing high reflectivity cores. J. Atmos. Sci.,55, 208–226.
Szumowski, M. J., R. M. Rauber, and H. T. Ochs III, 1999: The microphysical structure and evolution of Hawaiian rainband clouds. Part III: A test of the ultragiant nuclei hypothesis. J. Atmos. Sci.,56, 1980–2003.
Takahashi, T., 1990: Near absence of lightning in torrential rainfall producing Micronesian thunderstorms. Geophys. Res. Lett.,17, 2381–2384.
Tan, J., J. W. F. Goddard, and M. Thurai, 1995: Applications of differential propagation phase in polarisation-diversity radars at S-band and C-band. Proc. Ninth Int. Conf. on Antenna and Propagation, Eindhoven, Netherlands, IEE, IEE Conference Publication 407, 336–341.
Ulbrich, C. W., 1983: Natural variations in the analytical form of the raindrop size distribution. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,22, 1764– 1775.
Vivekanandan, J., W. M. Adams, and V. N. Bringi, 1991: Rigorous approach to polarimetric radar modeling of hydrometeor orientation distributions. J. Appl. Meteor.,30, 1053–1063.
Yuter, S. E., and R. A. Houze Jr., 1995: Three-dimensional kinematic and microphysical evolution of Florida cumulonimbus. Part II: Frequency distributions of vertical velocity, reflectivity, and differential reflectivity. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 1941–1963.
Zawadzki, I., 1975: On radar–raingage comparison. J. Appl. Meteor.,14, 1430–1436.
Zawadzki, I., 1984: Factors affecting the precision of radar measurements of rain. Preprints, 22d Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Zurich, Switzerland, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 251–256.
Zrnić, D. S., 1987: Three-body scattering produces precipitation signature of special diagnostic value. Radio Sci.,22, 76–86.
Zrnić, D. S., and A. V. Ryzhkov, 1996: Advantages of rain measurements using specific differential phase. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,13, 465–476.
Zrnić, D. S., and A. V. Ryzhkov, 1997: Polarimetric measurements of rain. Weather Radar Technology for Water Resources Management, B. Braga and O. Massambani, Eds., UNESCO Press, 77–86.
Zrnić, D. S., T. D. Keenan, L. D. Carey, and P. T. May, 2000: Sensitivity analysis of polarimetric variables at a 5-cm wavelength in rain. J. Appl. Meteor.,39, 1514–1526.