This work was supported by the NSF SHEBA (OPP-9701730 and 0084257), the NASA FIRE ACE (L64205D), the NASA EOS Validation (S-97895-F), NASA ISCCP, and NOAA SEARCH programs. Microwave and IR radiometer data were obtained from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. Radiosonde data were obtained from the University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory (UW APL). Aircraft data were obtained from the National Center for Atmospheric Research, B. Baker, P. Lawson, and P. Zuidema are gratefully acknowledged for providing the in situ ice microphysical data, and S. Frisch and G. Feingold provided valuable insight into liquid cloud retrievals. SHEBA was greatly aided by the logistics team from the UW APL and the crew of the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Des Grosseilliers.
Atlas, D., S. Y. Matrosov, A. J. Heymsfield, M-D. Chou, and D. B. Wolff. 1995. Radar and radiation properties of ice clouds. J. Appl. Meteor. 34:2329–2345.
Baker, B., C. Schmitt, P. Lawson, and D. Mitchell. 2002. Further analysis and improvements of ice crystal mass-size relationships. Preprints, 11th Conf. on Cloud Physics, Ogden, UT, Amer. Meteor. Soc., CD-ROM, P2.15.
Brown, P. R. A. and P. N. Francis. 1995. Improved measurements of the ice water content in cirrus using a total-water probe. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 12:410–414.
Dong, X., T. P. Ackerman, E. E. Clothiaux, P. Pilewskie, and Y. Han. 1997. Microphysical and radiative properties of boundary layer stratiform clouds deduced from ground-based measurements. J. Geophys. Res. 102:23829–23843.
Dong, X., P. Minnis, T. P. Ackerman, E. E. Clothiaux, G. G. Mace, C. N. Long, and J. C. Liljegren. 2000. A 25-month database of stratus cloud properties generated from ground-based measurements at the ARM SGP site. J. Geophys. Res. 105:4529–4537.
Dong, X., P. Minnis, G. G. Mace, W. L. Smith Jr., M. Poellot, R. T. Marchand, and A. D. Rapp. 2002. Comparison of stratus cloud properties deduced from surface, GOES, and aircraft data during the March 2000 ARM cloud IOP. J. Atmos. Sci. 59:3265–3284.
Donovon, D. P. and A. C. A. P. van Lammeren. 2001. Cloud effective particle size and water content profile retrievals using combined lidar and radar observations, 1. Theory and examples. J. Geophys. Res. 106:27425–27448.
Fox, N. I. and A. J. Illingworth. 1997. The retrieval of stratocumulus cloud properties by ground-based cloud radar. J. Appl. Meteor. 36:485–492.
Frey, R. A., B. A. Baum, W. P. Menzel, S. A. Ackerman, C. C. Moeller, and J. D. Spinhirne. 1999. A comparison of cloud top heights computed from airborne lidar and MAS radiance data using CO2 slicing. J. Geophys. Res. 104:24547–24555.
Frisch, A. S., C. W. Fairall, and J. B. Snider. 1995. Measurements of stratus cloud and drizzle parameters in ASTEX with a Ka-band Doppler radar and microwave radiometer. J. Atmos. Sci. 52:2788–2799.
Frisch, A. S., G. Feingold, C. W. Fairall, T. Uttal, and J. B. Snider. 1998. On cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud liquid water profiles. J. Geophys. Res. 103:23195–23197.
Frisch, A. S., M. D. Shupe, I. Djalalova, G. Feingold, and M. Poellot. 2002. The retrieval of stratus cloud droplet effective radius with cloud radars. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19:835–842.
Gayet, J-F. Coauthors 2002. Quantitative measurement of the microphysical and optical properties of cirrus clouds with four different in situ probes: Evidence of small ice crystals. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29.2230, doi:10.1029/2001GL014342.
Gultepe, I. and G. Isaac. 1999. Scale effects on averaging of cloud droplet and aerosol number concentrations: Observations and models. J. Climate 12:1268–1279.
Gultepe, I. and G. Isaac. 2004. Aircraft observations of cloud droplet number concentration: Implications for climate studies. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 130:2377–2390.
Gultepe, I., G. Isaac, D. Hudak, R. Nissen, and J. W. Strapp. 2000. Dynamical and microphysical characteristics of Arctic clouds during BASE. J. Climate 13:1225–1254.
Hobbs, P. V. and A. L. Rangno. 1998. Microstructures of low and middle-level clouds over the Beaufort Sea. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 124:2035–2071.
Hogan, R. J., A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, and J. P. V. Poiares Baptista. 2003. Characteristics of mixed-phase clouds, Part II: A climatology from ground-based lidar. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 129:2117–2134.
Intrieri, J. M., M. D. Shupe, T. Uttal, and B. J. McCarty. 2002. An annual cycle of Arctic cloud characteristics observed by radar and lidar at SHEBA. J. Geophys. Res. 107.8030, doi:10.1029/2000JC000423.
Kahl, J. D. 1990. Characteristics of the low-level temperature inversion along the Alaskan Arctic coast. Int. J. Climatol. 10:537–548.
Knuteson, R. O. Coauthors 2004. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part I: Instrument design. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21:1763–1776.
Larsen, H., J-F. Gayet, G. Febvre, H. Chepfer, and G. Brogniez. 1998. Measurement errors in cirrus cloud microphysical properties. Ann. Geophys. 16:266–276.
Laursen, K. cited. 1998. Data quality summary: Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA). NCAR RAF Project 8-101. [Available online at raf.atd.ucar.edu/Projects/SHEBA/sheba_dqsumm.html.].
Lawson, P., B. A. Baker, C. G. Schmitt, and T. L. Jensen. 2001. An overview of microphysical properties of Arctic clouds observed in May and July 1998 during FIRE ACE. J. Geophys. Res. 106:14989–15014.
Liao, L. and K. Sassen. 1994. Investigation of relationships between Ka-band radar reflectivity and ice and liquid water contents. Atmos. Res. 34:231–248.
Liu, C-L. and A. J. Illingworth. 2000. Toward more accurate retrievals of ice water content from radar measurements of clouds. J. Appl. Meteor. 39:1130–1146.
Lohnert, U., S. Crewell, C. Simmer, and A. Macke. 2001. Profiling cloud liquid water by combining active and passive microwave measurements with cloud model studies. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18:1354–1366.
Mace, G. G., T. P. Ackerman, P. Minnis, and D. F. Young. 1998. Cirrus layer microphysical properties derived from surface-based millimeter radar and infrared interferometer data. J. Geophys. Res. 103:207–216.
Mace, G. G., A. J. Heymsfield, and M. R. Poellot. 2002. On retrieving the microphysical properties of cirrus cloud using the moments of the millimeter-wavelength Doppler spectrum. J. Geophys. Res. 107.4815, doi:10.1029/2001JD001308.
Matrosov, S. Y. 1997. Variability of microphysical parameters in high-altitude ice clouds: Result of the remote sensing method. J. Appl. Meteor. 36:633–648.
Matrosov, S. Y. 1999. Retrievals of vertical profiles of ice cloud microphysics from radar and IR measurements using tuned regressions between reflectivity and cloud parameters. J. Geophys. Res. 104:16741–16753.
Matrosov, S. Y., T. Uttal, J. B. Snider, and R. A. Kropfli. 1992. Estimation of ice cloud parameters from ground-based infrared radiometer and radar measurements. J. Geophys. Res. 97:11567–11574.
Matrosov, S. Y., A. V. Korolev, and A. J. Heymsfield. 2002. Profiling cloud ice mass and particle characteristic size from Doppler radar measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19:1003–1018.
Matrosov, S. Y., M. D. Shupe, A. J. Heymsfield, and P. Zuidema. 2003. Ice cloud optical thickness and extinction estimates from radar measurements. J. Appl. Meteor. 42:1584–1597.
McFarlane, S. A., K. F. Evans, and A. S. Ackerman. 2002. A Bayesian algorithm for the retrieval of liquid water cloud properties from microwave radiometer and millimeter radar data. J. Geophys. Res. 107.4317, doi:10.1029/2001JD001011.
Miles, N. L., J. Verlinde, and E. E. Clothiaux. 2000. Cloud droplet size distributions in low-level stratiform clouds. J. Atmos. Sci. 57:295–311.
Moran, K. P., B. E. Martner, M. J. Post, R. A. Kropfli, D. C. Welsh, and K. B. Widener. 1998. An unattended cloud-profiling radar for use in climate research. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 79:443–455.
Morrison, H., M. D. Shupe, and J. A. Curry. 2003. Modeling clouds observed at SHEBA using a bulk microphysics parameterization implemented into a single-column model. J. Geophys. Res. 108.4255, doi:10.1029/2002JD002229.
Pinto, J. O., J. A. Curry, and J. M. Intrieri. 2001. Cloud–aerosol interactions during autumn over the Beaufort Sea. J. Geophys. Res. 106:15077–15097.
Sassen, K. 1984. Deep orographic cloud structure and composition derived from comprehensive remote sensing measurements. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. 23:568–583.
Sassen, K., Z. Wang, V. I. Khvorostyanov, G. L. Stephens, and A. Bennedetti. 2002. Cirrus cloud ice water content radar algorithm evaluation using an explicit cloud microphysical model. J. Appl. Meteor. 41:620–628.
Shupe, M. D., T. Uttal, S. Y. Matrosov, and A. S. Frisch. 2001. Cloud water contents and hydrometeor sizes during the FIRE-Arctic Clouds Experiment. J. Geophys. Res. 106:15015–15028.
Shupe, M. D., P. Kollias, S. Y. Matrosov, and T. L. Schneider. 2004. Deriving mixed-phase cloud properties from Doppler radar spectra. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21:660–670.
Shupe, M. D., S. Y. Matrosov, and T. Uttal. 2005. Arctic mixed-phase cloud properties derived from surface-based sensors at SHEBA. J. Atmos. Sci. , in press.
Stephens, G. L. Coauthors 2002. The CloudSat Mission and the A-Train: A new dimension of space-based observations of clouds and precipitation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 83:1771–1790.
Turner, D. D. 2005. Arctic mixed-phase cloud properties from AERI-lidar observations: Algorithm and results from SHEBA. J. Appl. Metoer. 44:427–444.
Wang, Z. and K. Sassen. 2002. Cirrus cloud microphysical property retrieval using lidar and radar measurements. Part I: Algorithm description and comparisons with in situ data. J. Appl. Meteor. 41:218–229.
Westwater, E. R., Y. Han, M. D. Shupe, and S. Y. Matrosov. 2001. Analysis of integrated cloud liquid and precipitable water vapor retrievals from microwave radiometers during SHEBA. J. Geophys. Res. 106:32019–32030.
Wielicki, B. A. and L. Parker. 1992. On the determination of cloud cover from satellite sensors: The effect of sensor spatial resolution. J. Geophys. Res. 97:12799–12823.