This work was partially supported by the Research Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) and GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund [S-8-1(2)] of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, and the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (25106701) funded by JSPS. Fog-frequency data and radiosonde observation data were provided by JMA. ERA-40 and ERA-Interim data were provided by the ECMWF. SST data of NOAA-ERSST V3 were provided by the National Climatic Data Center. We are grateful to Ms. Akiko Shouji, Mr. Atsushi Wajima, Mr. Satoshi Yamanaka, Mr. Yuji Yamada, Mr. Kazuhiro Tanabe, and Mr. Satoshi Sugawara at Japan Meteorological Agency for their helpful advice.
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