We sincerely thank Dr. Ken Knapp of the National Climatic Data Center and two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments on an earlier version of the manuscript, which helped to improve the science and presentation of this study. We also thank meteorological observers, forecasters, and experts from within and outside of CMA, who were and are devoted to the construction of the database, for their hard work on data collection, processing, and analysis. This work was supported jointly by the National Basic Research Program of China Grant 2012CB956003, the National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant 41075071, and the China National Special Funding Project for Meteorology Grant GYHY201006008.
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The NMC/CMA began its real-time TC track analysis in 1959. Its area of responsibility covered the western area of the WNP (105°−150°E) during the period 1959−85, and was enlarged to the whole WNP basin in 1986. The NMC designates the CMA identification number (ID) for each TC that forms in, or enters, its area of responsibility when the TC either reaches maximum sustained wind (MSW) ≥ 17.2 m s−1 over the open ocean or MSW ≥ 13.9 m s−1 over the area offshore of China. For these TCs, the NMC also issues the real-time track analysis (including location and intensity) until they decay or move out of the area of responsibility.