My thanks go to Isaac Held for advice on the research on which this paper is based and on constructing the idealized GCM, and for many discussions over several years that helped to clarify, among other things, the commonalities and differences between the theoretical developments of this paper and quasigeostrophic theory. The simulations described in section 4c were prompted by discussions with Kerry Emanuel, Richard Lindzen, and Alan Plumb. I also thank Vladimir Gryanik, Peter Haynes, Paul Kushner, Shafer Smith, Ka-Kit Tung, and a reviewer for helpful discussions and comments on the paper, and Heidi Swanson for editing the manuscript. Parts of the research on which this paper is based were carried out while I was with the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University (supported partially by NSF Grant DMS-9972865 and ONR Grant N00014-96-1-0043) and with the Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program at Princeton University (supported by a NASA Earth System Science Fellowship).
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