This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant ATM-0436288; N. Privé received support from a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship. Thanks to Kerry Emanuel, Elfatih Eltahir, John Marshall, Chris Hill, Olivier Pauluis, Jean-Michel Campin, and Ed Hill for helpful discussions. We would also like to thank two anonymous reviews whose helpful comments led to significant improvement of this paper.
Emanuel, K. A., 1986: An air–sea interaction theory for tropical cyclones. Part I: Steady-state maintenance. J. Atmos. Sci., 43 , 585–604.
Emanuel, K. A., and M. Živković-Rothman, 1999: Development and evaluation of a convection scheme for use in climate models. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 1766–1782.
Emanuel, K. A., J. D. Neelin, and C. S. Bretherton, 1994: On large-scale circulations in convecting atmospheres. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120 , 1111–1143.
Goswami, B. N., and J. Shukla, 1984: Quasi-periodic oscillations in a symmetric general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 41 , 20–37.
Halley, E., 1686: An historical account of the trade winds, and monsoons, observable in the seas between and near the Tropicks, with an attempt to assign the phisical cause of said winds. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, 26 , 153–168.
Held, I. M., and A. Y. Hou, 1980: Nonlinear axially symmetric circulations in a nearly inviscid atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 37 , 515–533.
Held, I. M., and M. J. Suarez, 1994: A proposal for the intercomparison of the dynamical cores of atmospheric general circulation models. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 75 , 1825–1830.
Hide, R., 1969: Dynamics of the atmospheres of the major planets with an appendix on the viscous boundary layer at the rigid bounding surface of an electrically-conducting rotating fluid in the presence of a magnetic field. J. Atmos. Sci., 26 , 841–853.
Lindzen, R. S., and A. Y. Hou, 1988: Hadley circulations for zonally averaged heating off the equator. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 2416–2427.
Manabe, S., 1969: Climate and the ocean circulation: The atmospheric circulation and the hydrology of the earth’s surface. Mon. Wea. Rev., 97 , 739–773.
Marshall, J., A. Adcroft, J-M. Campin, and C. Hill, 2004: Atmosphere–ocean modeling exploiting fluid isomorphisms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 2882–2894.
Molnar, P., and K. Emanuel, 1999: Temperature profiles in radiative-convective equilibrium above surfaces at different heights. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 24265–24271.
Pauluis, O., 2001: Axially symmetric circulations in a moist atmosphere. Preprints, 13th Conf. on Fluid Dynamics, Breckenridge, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc. CD-ROM, 4.12.
Plumb, R., and A. Hou, 1992: The response of a zonally symmetric atmosphere to subtropical forcing: Threshold behavior. J. Atmos. Sci., 49 , 1790–1799.
Privé, N. C., and R. A. Plumb, 2007: Monsoon dynamics with interactive forcing, Part II: Impact of eddies and asymmetric geometries. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 1431–1442.
Schneider, E., 1977: Axially symmetric steady-state models of the basic state for instability and climate studies. Part II: Nonlinear calculations. J. Atmos. Sci., 34 , 280–296.
Webster, P., 1983: Mechanisms of monsoon low-frequency variability: Surface hydrological effects. J. Atmos. Sci., 40 , 2110–2124.
Zheng, X., 1998: The response of a moist zonally symmetric atmosphere to subtropical surface temperature perturbation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 124 , 1209–1226.