We are grateful for support by the National Science Foundation (Grant ATM-0450059), by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Grant NAG512559), by a David and Lucile Packard Fellowship, and by a UCLA Dissertation Year Fellowship. We thank Chris Walker for assistance with the GCM and related software and Paul O’Gorman, Bjorn Stevens, and Duane Waliser for helpful comments on drafts of this paper. The simulations reported in this paper were carried out on Caltech’s Geological and Planetary Sciences Dell cluster.
Bordoni, S., 2007: On the role of eddies in monsoonal circulations: Observations and theory. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, 223 pp.
Bordoni, S., and B. Stevens, 2006: Principal component analysis of the summertime winds over the Gulf of California: A gulf surge index. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134 , 3395–3414.
Bordoni, S., P. E. Ciesielski, R. H. Johnson, B. D. McNoldy, and B. Stevens, 2004: The low-level circulation of the North American monsoon as revealed by QuikSCAT. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 .L10109, doi:10.1029/2004GL020009.
Chou, C., and J. D. Neelin, 2003: Mechanisms limiting the northward extent of the northern summer monsoons over North America, Asia, and Africa. J. Climate, 16 , 406–425.
Chou, C., J. D. Neelin, and H. Su, 2001: Ocean-atmosphere-land feedbacks in an idealized monsoon. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127 , 1869–1892.
Held, I. M., 2000: The general circulation of the atmosphere. Proc. Program in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Woods Hole, MA, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. [Available online at hdl.handle.net/1912/15.].
Held, I. M., 2001: The partitioning of the poleward energy transport between the tropical ocean and atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 943–948.
Held, I. M., and A. Y. Hou, 1980: Nonlinear axially symmetric circulations in a nearly inviscid atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 37 , 515–533.
Held, I. M., and M. J. Suarez, 1994: A proposal for the intercomparison of the dynamical cores of atmospheric general circulation models. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 75 , 1825–1830.
Hsu, C. J., and R. A. Plumb, 2000: Nonaxisymmetric thermally driven circulations and upper-tropospheric monsoon dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci., 57 , 1255–1276.
Krishnamurti, T. N., P. Ardanuy, Y. Ramanathan, and R. Pasch, 1981: On the onset vortex of the summer monsoons. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109 , 344–363.
Lau, K-M., and S. Yang, 1996: Seasonal variation, abrupt transition, and intraseasonal variability associated with the Asian summer monsoon in the GLA GCM. J. Climate, 9 , 965–985.
Li, C., and M. Yanai, 1996: The onset and interannual variability of the Asian summer monsoon in relation to land–sea thermal contrast. J. Climate, 9 , 358–375.
Lindzen, R. S., and S. Nigam, 1987: On the role of sea surface temperature gradients in forcing low-level winds and convergence in the Tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 2418–2436.
Lindzen, R. S., and A. Y. Hou, 1988: Hadley circulations for zonally averaged heating centered off the equator. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 2416–2427.
Mapes, B. E., P. Liu, and N. Buenning, 2005: Indian monsoon onset and the Americas midsummer drought: Out-of-equilibrium responses to smooth seasonal forcing. J. Climate, 18 , 1109–1115.
Neelin, J. D., 2007: Moist dynamics of tropical convection zones in monsoons, teleconnections, and global warming. The Global Circulation of the Atmosphere, T. Schneider and A. H. Sobel, Eds., Princeton University Press, 267–301.
Neelin, J. D., and I. M. Held, 1987: Modeling tropical convergence based on the moist static energy budget. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 3–12.
Neelin, J. D., I. M. Held, and K. H. Cook, 1987: Evaporation–wind feedback and low-frequency variability in the tropical atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 2341–2348.
Numaguti, A., 1995: Dynamics and energy balance of the Hadley circulation and the tropical precipitation zones. Part II: Sensitivity to meridional SST distribution. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 1128–1141.
Plumb, R. A., 2007: Dynamical constraints on monsoon circulations. The Global Circulation of the Atmosphere, T. Schneider and A. H. Sobel, Eds., Princeton University Press, 252–266.
Plumb, R. A., and A. Y. Hou, 1992: The response of a zonally symmetric atmosphere to subtropical thermal forcing: Threshold behavior. J. Atmos. Sci., 49 , 1790–1799.
Privé, N. C., and R. A. Plumb, 2007a: Monsoon dynamics with interactive forcing. Part I: Axisymmetric studies. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 1417–1430.
Privé, N. C., and R. A. Plumb, 2007b: Monsoon dynamics with interactive forcing. Part II: Impact of eddies and asymmetric geometries. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 1431–1442.
Schneider, E. K., 1977: Axially symmetric steady-state models of the basic state for instability and climate studies. Part II: Nonlinear calculations. J. Atmos. Sci., 34 , 280–296.
Schneider, T., 2004: The tropopause and the thermal stratification in the extratropics of a dry atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 61 , 1317–1340.
Schneider, T., and C. C. Walker, 2006: Self-organization of atmospheric macroturbulence into critical states of weak nonlinear eddy–eddy interactions. J. Atmos. Sci., 63 , 1569–1586.
Smagorinsky, J., S. Manabe, and J. L. Holloway Jr., 1965: Numerical results from a nine-level general circulation model of the atmosphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 93 , 727–768.
Sobel, A. H., 2007: Simple models of ensemble-averaged tropical precipitation and surface wind, given the sea surface temperature. The Global Circulation of the Atmosphere, T. Schneider and A. H. Sobel, Eds., Princeton University Press, 219–251.
Sobel, A. H., and J. D. Neelin, 2006: The boundary layer contribution to intertropical convergence zones in the quasi-equilibrium tropical circulation model framework. Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn., 20 , 323–350.
Stevens, B., J. Duan, J. C. McWilliams, M. Münnich, and J. D. Neelin, 2002: Entrainment, Rayleigh friction, and boundary layer winds over the tropical Pacific. J. Climate, 15 , 30–44.
Tomas, R. A., J. R. Holton, and P. J. Webster, 1999: The influence of cross-equatorial pressure gradients on the location of near-equatorial convection. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125 , 1107–1127.
Waliser, D. E., and R. C. J. Somerville, 1994: Preferred latitudes of the intertropical convergence zone. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 1619–1639.
Walker, C. C., and T. Schneider, 2005: Response of idealized Hadley circulations to seasonally varying heating. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 .L06813, doi:10.1029/2004GL022304.
Walker, C. C., and T. Schneider, 2006: Eddy influences on Hadley circulations: Simulations with an idealized GCM. J. Atmos. Sci., 63 , 3333–3350.
Webster, P. J., and J. R. Holton, 1982: Cross-equatorial response to middle-latitude forcing in a zonally varying basic state. J. Atmos. Sci., 39 , 722–733.
Yano, J-I., and K. A. Emanuel, 1991: An improved model of the equatorial troposphere and its coupling with the stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 377–389.
Young, J. A., 1987: Boundary layer dynamics of tropical and monsoonal flows. Monsoon Meteorology, Monogr. Geol. Geophys., Vol. 7, Oxford University Press, 461–500.
Zhang, C., M. McGauley, and N. A. Bond, 2004: Shallow meridional circulation in the tropical eastern Pacific. J. Climate, 17 , 133–139.