This research was made possible through support from the Center for Integrated Study of the Human Dimensions of Global Change. This Center has been created through a cooperative agreement between the National Science Foundation (SBR-9521914) and Carnegie Mellon University. Additional support was provided via National Science Foundation Grant ATM-0457515. We thank two anonymous reviewers for helpful criticisms and suggestions.
Christiansen, M. B., and C. B. Hasager, 2005: Wake effects of large offshore wind farms identified from satellite SAR. Remote Sens. Environ., 98 , 251–268. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2005.07.009.
Collins, W. D., and Coauthors, 2006: The formulation and atmospheric simulation of the Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3). J. Climate, 19 , 2144–2161.
Cook, K. H., and I. M. Held, 1992: The stationary response to large-scale orography in a general circulation model and a linear model. J. Atmos. Sci., 49 , 525–539.
European Wind Energy Association, 2005: Wind Force 12: A blueprint to achieve 12% of the world’s electricity from wind power by 2020. European Wind Energy Association Rep., 52 pp. [Available online at http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/ewea_documents/documents/publications/WF12/wf12-2005.pdf.].
Grubišić, V., R. B. Smith, and C. Schär, 1995: The effect of bottom friction on shallow-water flow past an isolated obstacle. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 1985–2005.
Keith, D. W., J. F. DeCarolis, D. C. Denkenberger, D. H. Lenschow, S. L. Malyshev, S. Pacala, and P. J. Rasch, 2004: The influence of large-scale wind-power on global climate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 101 , 16115–16120. doi:10.1073/pnas. 0406930101.
Lange, B., H-P. Waldl, R. Barthelmie, A. G. Guerrero, and D. Heinemann, 2003: Modelling of offshore wind turbine wakes with the wind farm program FLaP. Wind Energy, 6 , 87–104.
Pacala, S., and R. Socolow, 2004: Stabilization wedges: Solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies. Science, 305 , 968–972. doi:10.1126/science.1100103.
Richter, I., and C. R. Mechoso, 2004: Orographic influences on the annual cycle of Namibian stratocumulus clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 .L24108, doi:10.1029/2004GL020814.
Rooijmans, P., 2004: Impact of a large-scale offshore wind farm on meteorology: Numerical simulations with a mesoscale circulation model. M.S. thesis, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Utrecht University, 41 pp.
Roy, S. B., S. Pacala, and R. L. Walko, 2004: Can large wind farms affect local meteorology? J. Geophys. Res., 109 .D19101, doi:10.1029/2004JD004763.
Schär, C., and R. B. Smith, 1993: Shallow-water flow past isolated topography. Part I: Vorticity production and wake formation. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 1373–1400.