The authors express their gratitude to the Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHRC) for providing access to the WSI radar composites data. This project was undertaken with the financial support of the government of Canada provided through the Department of the Environment. A special thanks goes to all our group members for their fruitful discussions during the group meetings and especially to Dr. Aldo Bellon for his suggestions in improving the manuscript. We thank Dr. Rit Carbone and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions in improving the quality of the work.
Austin, G. L., and A. Bellon, 1974: The use of digital weather radar records for short-term precipitation forecasting. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 100, 658–664.
Barclay, P. A., and K. E. Wilk, 1970: Severe thunderstorm radar echo motion and related weather events hazardous to aviation operations. ESSA Tech. Memo. ERLTM-NSSL 46, 63 pp. [Available from National Information Service, Operations Division, Springfield, VA 22161.]
Bellon, A., and G. L. Austin, 1978: The evaluation of two years of real-time operation of a short-term precipitation forecasting procedure (SHARP). J. Appl. Meteor., 17, 1778–1787.
Bowler, N. E., C. E. Pierce, and A. Seed, 2004: Development of a precipitation nowcasting algorithm based on optical flow techniques. J. Hydrol., 288, 74–91.
Browning, K. A., C. G. Collier, P. R. Larke, P. Menmuir, G. A. Monk, and R. G. Owens, 1982: On the forecasting of frontal rain using a weather radar network. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 534–552.
Carbone, R. E., J. D. Tuttle, D. A. Ahijevych, and S. B. Trier, 2002: Inferences of predictability associated with warm season precipitation episodes. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 2033–2056.
Chornoboy, E. S., A. M. Matlin, and J. P. Morgan, 1994: Automated storm tracking for terminal air traffic control. Lincoln Lab. J., 7, 427–448.
Dixon, M., and G. Wiener, 1993: TITAN: Thunderstorm Identification, Tracking, Analysis, and Nowcasting—A radar-based methodology. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 10, 785–797.
Duda, R. O., and R. H. Blackmer, 1972: Applications of pattern recognition techniques to digitized weather radar data. Stanford Research Institute Final Rep. SRI Project 1287, Contract I-36092, 135 pp. [Available from National Information Service, Operations Division, Springfield, VA 22161.]
Dupree, W. J., and Coauthors, 2009: The 2008 CoSPA forecast demonstration collaboration storm prediction for aviation. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/89annual/techprogram/paper_151488.htm.]
Forman, B. E., M. M. Wolfson, R. G. Hallowell, and M. P. Moore, 1999: Aviation user needs for convective weather forecasts. Preprints, Eighth Conf. on Aviation, Range, and Aerospace Meteorology, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 14.4. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/99annual/abstracts/1277.htm.]
Germann, U., and I. Zawadzki, 2002: Scale-dependence of the predictability of precipitation from continental radar images. Part I: Description of the methodology. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 2859–2873.
Germann, U., and I. Zawadzki, 2004: Scale dependence of the predictability of precipitation from continental radar images. Part II: Probability forecasts. J. Appl. Meteor., 43, 74–89.
Germann, U., I. Zawadzki, and B. J. Turner, 2006: Predictability of precipitation from continental radar images. Part IV: Limits to prediction. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2092–2108.
Gonzalez, R. C., and R. E. Woods, 1992: Digital Image Processing. Addison-Wesley, 716 pp.
Henry, S. G., 1993: Analysis of thunderstorm lifetime as a function of size and intensity. Preprints, 26th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Norman, OK, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 138–140.
Kessler, E., 1969: On the Distribution and Continuity of Water Substance in Atmospheric Circulations. Meteor. Monogr., No. 32, 88 pp.
Martin, R., 1989: A statistic useful for characterizing probability distributions, with application to rain rate data. J. Appl. Meteor., 28, 354–360.
Meneghini, R., and J. A. Jones, 1993: An approach to estimate the areal rain-rate distribution from spaceborne radar by the use of multiple thresholds. J. Appl. Meteor., 32, 386–398.
Mueller, C., T. Saxen, R. Roberts, J. Wilson, T. Betancourt, S. Dettling, N. Oien, and J. Yee, 2003: NCAR Auto-Nowcast System. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 545–561.
Rasmussen, R., M. Dixon, S. Vasiloff, F. Hage, S. Knight, J. Vivekanandan, and M. Xu, 2003: Snow nowcasting using a real-time correlation of radar reflectivity with snow gauge accumulation. J. Appl. Meteor., 42, 20–36.
Tsonis, A. A., and G. L. Austin, 1981: An evaluation of extrapolation techniques for the short-term prediction of rain amounts. Atmos.–Ocean, 19, 54–65.
Turner, B. J., I. Zawadzki, and U. Germann, 2004: Predictability of precipitation from continental radar images. Part III: Operational nowcasting implementation (MAPLE). J. Appl. Meteor., 43, 231–248.
Walton, M. L., P. R. Ahnert, and M. D. Hudlow, 1985: Proposed onsite flash flood potential system for NEXRAD. Preprints, Sixth Conf. on Hydrometeorology, Indianapolis, IN, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 122–129.
Wilson, J. W., 1966: Movement and predictability of radar echoes. National Severe Storms Laboratory Tech. Memo. ERTM-NSSL-28, 30 pp. [Available from National Information Service, Operations Division, Springfield, VA 22161.]
Wilson, J. W., and D. L. Megenhardt, 1997: Thunderstorm initiation, organization, and lifetime associated with Florida boundary layer convergence lines. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 1507–1525.
Wilson, J. W., N. A. Crook, C. K. Mueller, J. Sun, and M. Dixon, 1998: Nowcasting thunderstorms: A status report. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 2079–2099.
Wolfson, M. M., B. E. Forman, R. G. Hallowell, and M. P. Moore, 1999: The growth and decay storm tracker. Preprints, Eighth Conf. on Aviation, Range, and Aerospace Meteorology, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 4.3. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/99annual/abstracts/1494.htm.]
Wolfson, M. M., W. J. Dupree, R. M. Rasmussen, M. Steiner, S. G. Benjamin, and S. Weygandt, 2008: Consolidated storm prediction for aviation (CoSPA). Preprints, 13th Conf. on Aviation, Range, and Aerospace Meteorology, New Orleans, LA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J6.5. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/88Annual/techprogram/paper_132981.htm.]