This work benefited from conversations with Dan Kirshbaum. The manuscript was improved thanks to comments of Bart Geerts and two anonymous reviewers. Tom Parish processed the differentially corrected GPS data. Robert Warren corrected the airborne temperature data for probe-wetting biases. Sam Haimov, Jeff French, Larry Oolman, and the UWKA team provided invaluable support and advice in the field. Philippe Palany and Meteo France provided data from operational radars and surface stations. WRF simulations were conducted using facilities of the Yale University Faculty of Arts and Sciences High Performance Computing Center. This work was supported by NSF Grant ATM-0930356. JRM's participation was also supported by the Yale Geology and Geophysics Flint Postdoctoral Fellowship.
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