Johanna Whiteman provided expert editorial assistance. Editor Jeff Rosenfeld suggested this venue for the article and made suggestions for reducing the article size. Climbers Camilo Rada, Ralf Gantzhorn, Colin Haley, Gregory Crouch, Simon Garrod, Jorge Ackermann, Damien Gildea, Simón Elías, Hayden Kennedy, Ole Lied, Lionel Daudet, Thomas Ulrich, Thomas Senf, Jon Walsh, and Josh Wharton provided mushroom descriptions and photographs. Kevin Trenberth and Dennis Shea at the National Center for Atmospheric Science and Jeff Massey at the University of Utah assisted with Fig. 6. Wesley Harrison compiled rime mushroom reports and produced Fig. 4. Matt Jeglum is thanked for useful discussions and a review of an early version of this article. This research was partially funded by the National Science Foundation under grants ATM- 0938397 and AGS-0837870, and by the Office of Naval Research Award # N00014-11-1-0709, Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program.
FOR FURTHER READING
Dee, D. P., and Coauthors, 2011: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553–597.
Mazin, I. P., A. V. Korolev, A. Heymsfield, G. A. Isaac, and S. G. Cober, 2001: Thermodynamics of ice cylinder measurements of liquid water content in supercooled clouds. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 18, 543–558.
Mazzoni, E., A. Coronato, and J. Rabassa, 2010: The Southern Patagonian Andes: The largest mountain ice cap of the Southern Hemisphere. Geomorphological Landscapes of the World, P. Migon, Ed., Springer, 111–121.
World Meteorological Organization, 1975: International Cloud Atlas, Vol I. Manual on the Observation of Clouds and Other Meteors. WMO No. 407, 155 p.
1 In addition to rime mushrooms, simple rime on rock faces can challenge climbers. Newly deposited rime or winter rime that has not been through melt–freeze cycles can be easily cleared away. Clearing rime that has gone through one or more melt–freeze cycles is more difficult, unless it has been loosened by rising temperatures. On steep rock faces, warming air and rock may cause rime-falls. Water flowing from melting rime on a rock face may subsequently freeze in cracks or chimneys, forming verglas. This thin layer of brittle, clear ice is attached to the rock or separated from it by an air gap through which water drained as the underlying rock was heated by solar radiation or by stored heat from the rock mass.