This work was carried out during one of the authors’ (H.O.) stay at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. We wish to express our gratitude to the Canon Foundation in Europe and the Japan Society for Promotion of Science for financial support. Acknowledgment is also given to Dr. K. Masuda of Tokyo Metropolitan University for stimulating the author’s interest in thermodynamics of climate; to Dr. B. T. Alt of Balanced Environments Associates, Canada, for valuable comments on the early version of the manuscript; and to Dr. K. Goto-Azuma of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention for encouragement. Reevaluation of the earth’s surface energy balance was carried out by research grants from the Swiss National Science Foundation (2100-037698.93 and 20-43542.95).
Barkstrom, B., E. F. Harrison, and R. B. Lee, 1990: Earth radiation budget experiment. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union,71, 297–305.
Bénard, H., 1901: Les tourbillons cellulaires dans une nappe liquide transportant de la chaleur par convection en régime permanent. (Cellular vortex in a liquid layer transporting heat through convection in a stationary state.) Ann. Chim. Phys.,23, 62–144.
Chen, S., and Y. Wang, 1983: The phenomenon of wave-length increase in Rayleigh–Bénard convection and criterion of maximum entropy production. Chin. Phys.,3, 595–601.
Félici, N. J., 1974: Thermodynamique—Instabilité, transport, et production d’entropie. (Thermodynamics—Instability, transport and production of entropy). C. R. Seances Acad. Sci. Ser. 2,278B, 151–153.
Goody, R. M., and Y. L. Yung, 1989: Atmospheric Radiation, Theoretical Basis. 2d ed. Oxford University Press, 519 pp.
Hadley, G., 1735: Concerning the cause of the general trade-wind. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London,29, 58–62.
London, J., 1957: A study of the atmospheric heat balance. Final Rep. on Contract No. AF (122)-165, New York University, 99 pp. [Available from Prof. J. London, Department of Astrophysical Planetary and Atmospheric Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80302.].
Lorenz, E. N., 1963: Deterministic nonperiodic flow. J. Atmos. Sci.,20, 130–141.
Manabe, S., and R. F. Strickler, 1964: Thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere with a convective adjustment. J. Atmos. Sci.,21, 361–385.
——, J. Smagorinsky, and R. F. Strickler, 1965: Simulated climatology of a general circulation model with a hydrologic cycle. Mon. Wea. Rev.,93, 769–798.
Newell, R. E., D. G. Vincent, T. G. Dopplick, D. Ferruza, and J. W. Kidson, 1970: The energy balance of the global atmosphere. The Global Circulation of the Atmosphere, G. A. Corby, Ed., Royal Meteorological Society, 42–90.
Ohmura, A., and H. Gilgen, 1993: Re-evaluation of the global energy balance. Interaction Between Global Climate Subsystems, The Legacy of Hann, Geophys. Monogr., No. 75, Amer. Geophys. Union, 93–110.
Onsager, L., 1931: Reciprocal relations in irreversible processes I. Phys. Rev.,37, 405–426.
Paltridge, G. W., 1975: Global dynamics and climate—A system of minimum entropy exchange. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,101, 475–484.
——, 1978: The steady-state format of global climate. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,104, 927–945.
Sawada, Y., 1981: A thermodynamic variational principle in nonlinear non-equilibrium phenomena. Prog. Theor. Phys.,66, 68–76.
Suzuki, M., and Y. Sawada, 1983: Relative stabilities of metastable states of convecting charged-fluid systems by computer simulation. Phys. Rev.,A27, 478–489.
Tiedtke, M., 1988: Parameterization of cumulus convection in large-scale models. Physically-Based Modelling and Simulation of Climate and Climatic Change, M. E. Schlesinger, Ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 375–425.