The authors acknowledge financial and logistical support from the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station (Middle Rio Grande and Borderlands Ecosystem Programs), the Pacific Northwest Research Station, the Nature Conservancy, the Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Global Change Program (WRD and BRD), and the Sevilleta LTER, which is funded by NSF and managed by the University of New Mexico. For field and laboratory assistance, we especially thank Rena Ann Abolt, Chris Baisan, Shelly Danzer, Paulette Ford, Mark Kaib, Ana MacKay, Henri Grissino-Mayer, Kiyomi Morino, Jim Parks, Jim Speer, and Margot Wilkinson. We also appreciate discussions with Craig Allen, Chris Baisan, Jim Gosz, Jerry Gottfried, Esteban Muldavin, Ann Lynch, Bob Parmenter, Dean Urban, and Boyd Wickman.
Andrade, E. R., Jr., and W. D. Sellers, 1988: El Niño and its effect on precipitation in Arizona and western New Mexico. J. Climatol.,8, 403–410.
Archer, S., D. S. Schimel, and E. A. Holland, 1995: Mechanisms of shrubland expansion: Land use, climate or CO2? Climate Change,29, 91–99.
Auclair, A. N. D., 1993: Extreme climatic fluctuations as a cause of forest dieback in the Pacific Rim. Water, Air, Soil Pollut.,66, 207–229.
——, and T. B. Carter, 1993: Forest wildfires as a recent source of CO-2 at northern latitudes. Can. J. For. Res.,23, 1528–1536.
——, and J. Bedford, 1994: Conceptual origins of catastrophic forest mortality in the western United States. J. Sustainable For.,2, 249–265.
Avery, C. C., F. R. Larson, and G. H. Schubert, 1976: Fifty-year records of virgin stand development in southwestern ponderosa pine. USDA Forest Service General Tech. Rep. RM-22, 71 pp.
Bahre, C., and M. L. Shelton, 1993: Historic vegetation change, mesquite increases and climate in southeastern Arizona. J. Biogeog.,20, 489–504.
Balling, R. C., Jr., G. A. Meyer, and S. G. Wells, 1992: Relation of surface climate and area burned in Yellowstone National Park. Agric. For. Meteor.,60, 285–293.
Barbosa, P., and J. C. Schultz, Eds., 1987: Insect Outbreaks. Academic Press, 578 pp.
Barden, L. S., 1988: Drought and survival in a self-perpetuating Pinus pungens population: Equilibrium or nonequilibrium? Amer. Midland Nat.,119, 253–257.
Barrows, J., 1978: Lightning fires in southwestern forests. Unpublished report to USDA Forest Service, Northern Forest Fire Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement 16-568 CA, 154 pp. [Available from Rocky Mountain Research Station Library, 240 West Prospect Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80526.].
Betancourt, J. L., E. A. Pierson, K. Aasen-Rylander, J. A. Fairchild-Parks, and J. S. Dean, 1993: Influence of history and climate on New Mexico pinyon-juniper woodlands. Proc. Managing Pinyon-Juniper Ecosystems for Sustainability and Social Needs, Santa Fe, NM, USDA Forest Service General Tech. Rep. RM-236, 42–62.
Blais, J. R., 1962: Collection and analysis of radial-growth data from trees for evidence of past spruce budworm outbreaks. For. Chron.,38, 474–484.
Brenner, J., 1991: Southern Oscillation anomalies and their relation to wildfire activity in Florida. Int. J. Wildland Fire,1, 73–78.
Brown, J. H., 1995: Macroecology. University of Chicago Press, 269 pp.
——, and E. J. Heske, 1990: Temporal changes in a Chihuahuan Desert rodent community. Oikos,59, 290–302.
Carter, M. G., 1964: Effects of drought on mesquite. J. Range Manage.,17, 275–276.
Cayan, D. R., and R. H. Webb, 1992: El Niño–Southern Oscillation and streamflow in the western United States. El Niño: Historical and Paleoclimatic Aspects of the Southern Oscillation, H. F. Diaz and V. Markgraf, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 29–68.
——, M. D. Dettinger, H. F. Diaz, and N. Graham, 1998: Decadal variability of precipitation over western North America. J. Climate,11, 3148–3166.
Clark, J. S., 1988: Effect of climate change on fire regimes in northwestern Minnesota. Nature,334, 233–235.
Cook, E. R., T. Bird, M. Peterson, M. Barbetti, B. Buckley, R. D’Arrigo, R. Francey, and P. Tans, 1991: Climatic change in Tasmania inferred from a 1089-year tree-ring chronology of Huon Pine. Science,253, 1266–1268.
——, D. M. Meko, D. W. Stahle, and M. K. Cleaveland, 1996: Tree-ring reconstructions of past drought across the coterminous United States: Tests of a regression method and calibration/verification results. Tree Rings, Environment, and Humanity: Proceedings of the International Conference, Tucson, Arizona, Radiocarbon, 155–169.
Craighead, F. C., 1925: Bark-beetle epidemics and rainfall deficiency. J. Econ. Entomol.,18, 577–586.
D’Arrigo, R. D., and G. C. Jacoby, 1991: A 1000-year record of winter precipitation from northwestern New Mexico, USA: A reconstruction from tree-rings and its relation to El Niño and the Southern Oscillation. Holocene,1, 95–101.
——, and ——, 1992: Dendroclimatic evidence from northern North America. Climate Since A.D. 1500, R. S. Bradley and P. S. Jones, Eds., Routledge, 296–311.
Darwin, C., 1855: Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited During the Voyage of H. M. S. Beagle Under the Command of Capt. Fitz Roy, R. N. Vol. II. Harper and Brothers, 324 pp.
Dean, J. S., 1994: The Medieval warm period on the southern Colorado plateau. Climate Change,26, 225–241.
Dettinger, M. D., D. R. Cayan, H. F. Diaz, and D. M. Meko, 1998: North–south precipitation patterns in western North America on interannual-to-decadal timescales. J. Climate,11, 3095–3111.
Diaz, H., and R. S. Pulwarty, 1994: An analysis of the time scales of variability in centuries-long ENSO-sensitive records in the last 100 years. Climate Change,26, 317–342.
Douglas, A. V., and P. Engelhart, 1984: Factors leading to the heavy precipitation regimes of 1982–83 in the United States. Proc. Eighth Annual Climate Diagnostics Workshop, 42–51.
Douglas, M. W., R. A. Maddox, K. Howard, and S. Reyes, 1993: The Mexican monsoon. J. Climate,6, 1665–1677.
Dunbar, R., G. M. Wellington, M. W. Colgan, and P. W. Glynn, 1994:Eastern Pacific sea surface temperature since 1600 A.D.: The d18O record of climate variability in Galapagos corals. Paleoceanography,9, 291–316.
Ebbesmeyer, C. C., D. R. Cayan, D. R. McLain, F. H. Nichols, D. H. Peterson, and K. T. Redmond, 1991: 1976 step in the Pacific climate: Forty environmental changes between 1968–1975 and 1977–1984. Proc. Seventh Annual Pacific Climate (PACLIM) Workshop, California Department of Water Resources, 115–126.
Elliott, K. J., and W. T. Swank, 1994: Impacts of drought on tree mortality and growth in a mixed hardwood forest. J. Veg. Sci.,5, 229–236.
Ferrell, G. T., 1996: The influence of insect pests and pathogens on Sierra Forests. Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project: Final Report to Congress. Vol. II. Assessments and Scientific Basis for Management Options. University of California, Davis, Centers for Water and Wildland Resources Center Rep. 38, 1177–1192.
Flannigan, M. D., and C. E. van Wagner, 1991: Climate change and wildfire in Canada. Can. J. For. Res.,21, 66–72.
Fritts, H. C., 1976: Tree Rings and Climate. Academic Press, 576 pp.
——, 1991: Reconstructing Large-Scale Climatic Patterns from Tree-Ring Data: A Diagnostic Analysis. The University of Arizona Press, 286 pp.
——, and T. W. Swetnam, 1989: Dendroecology: A tool for evaluating variations in past and present forest environments. Adv. Ecol. Res.,19, 111–189.
Ghil, M., and R. Vautard, 1991: Interdecadal oscillations and the warming trend in global temperature series. Nature,350, 324–327.
Goldberg, D. E., and R. M. Turner, 1984: Vegetation change and plant demography in permanent plots in the Sonoran Desert. Ecology,67, 695–712.
Graybill, D. A., and S. B. Idso, 1993: Detecting the aerial fertilization effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment in tree-ring chronologies. Global Biogeochem. Cycles,7, 81–95.
Greenidge, K. N. H., 1953: Further studies on birch dieback in Nova Scotia. Can. J. Bot.,31, 548–559.
Grissino-Mayer, H. D., 1996: A 2129-year reconstruction of precipitation for northwestern New Mexico, USA. Tree Rings, Environment, and Humanity: Proceedings of the International Conference: Tucson, Arizona, 17–21 May 1994, Radiocarbon, 191–204.
Grover, H. D., and B. Musick, 1990: Shrubland encroachment in southern New Mexico, U.S.A.: An analysis of desertification processes in the American Southwest. Climate Change,17, 305–330.
Hadley, K. S., and T. T. Veblen, 1993: Stand response to western spruce budworm and Douglas-fir bark beetle outbreaks, Colorado Front Range. Can. J. For. Res.,23, 479–491.
Halpert, M. S., and C. F. Ropelewski, 1992: Surface temperature patterns associated with the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate,5, 577–593.
Harrington, J. A., R. S. Cerveny, and R. C. Balling, 1992: Impact of the Southern Oscillation on the North American southwest monsoon. Phys. Geogr.13, 318–330.
Herbel, C. H., F. N. Ares, and R. G. Wright, 1972: Drought effects on a semidesert grassland range. Ecology,53, 1084–1093.
Hinrichsen, D., 1987: The forest decline enigma: What underlies extensive dieback on two continents? BioScience,37, 542–546.
Huston, M. A., 1994: Biological Diversity: The Coexistence of Species on Changing Landscapes. Cambridge University Press, 681 pp.
Idso, S. B., 1992: Shrubland expansion in the American Southwest. Climate Change,22, 85–86.
Innes, J. L., 1993: Forest Health: Its Assessment and Status. CAB International, 677 pp.
Jacoby, G. C., and R. D’Arrigo, 1993: Secular trends in high northern latitude temperature reconstructions from tree rings. Climate Change,25, 163–177.
Jane, G. T., and T. G. A. Green, 1983: Vegetation mortality in the Kaimai Ranges, North Island, New Zealand. Pac. Sci.,37, 385–389.
Johnson, E. A., and D. R. Wowchuck, 1993: Wildfires in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains and their relationship to mid-tropospheric anomalies. Can. J. For. Res.,23, 1213–1222.
Kahya, E., and J. A. Dracup, 1994: The influences of type 1 El Niño and La Niña events on streamflows in the Pacific southwest of the United States. J. Climate,7, 965–976.
Karl, T. R., and R. R. Heim Jr., 1990: Are droughts becoming more frequent or severe in the United States? Geophys. Res. Lett.,17, 1921–1924.
Knapp, P. A., 1995: Intermountain west lightning-caused fires: Climatic predictors of area burned. J. Range Manage.,48, 85–91.
LaMarche, V. C., D. A. Graybill, H. C. Fritts, and M. R. Rose, 1984:Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide: Tree-ring evidence for growth enhancement in natural vegetation. Science,225, 1019–1021.
Langston, N., 1995: Forest Dreams, Forest Nightmares: The Paradox of Old Growth in the Inland West. University of Washington Press, 368 pp.
Larsen, C. P. S., and G. M. MacDonald, 1995: Relations between tree-ring widths, climate, and annual area burned in the boreal forest of Alberta. Can. J. For. Res.,25, 1746–1755.
Larsson, S., 1989: Stressful times for the plant stress-insect performance hypothesis. Oikos,56, 277–283.
Latif, M., and T. P. Barnett, 1994: Causes of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America. Science,266, 634–637.
Levin, S. A., 1992: The problem of pattern and scale in ecology: The Robert H. MacArthur Award Lecture. Ecology,73, 1943–1967.
Lohmiller, R. G., 1963: Drought and its effect on condition and production of a desert grassland range. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Animal and Range Sciences, New Mexico State University, 57 pp. [Available from New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88201.].
Lorio, P. L., Jr., 1986: Growth-differentiation balance: A basis for understanding southern pine beetle–tree interactions. For. Ecol. Manage.,14, 259–273.
Lough, J. M., and H. C. Fritts, 1985: The southern oscillation and tree rings: 1600–1961. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,24, 952–966.
——, and ——, 1987: An assessment of the possible effects of volcanic eruptions on North American climate using tree-ring data, 1602 to 1900 A.D. Climate Change,10, 219–239.
Luckman, B. H., 1996: Dendrochronology and global change. Tree Rings, Environment and Humanity: Proceedings of the International Conference, Tucson, Arizona, Radiocarbon, 3–24.
Mann, M. E., J. Park, and R. S. Bradley, 1995: Global interdecadal and century-scale climate oscillations during the past five centuries. Nature,378, 266–270.
Marple, S. L., 1987: Digital Spectral Analysis: With Applications. Prentice-Hall, 492 pp.
Marshall, J. T., Jr., 1957: Birds of Pine-Oak Woodland in Southern Arizona and Adjacent Mexico. Cooper Ornithological Society, 125 pp.
Martin, S. C., 1986: Eighty years of vegetation change on a semidesert range in southern Arizona, U.S.A. and evaluation of causes. Rangelands: A Resource Under Siege, P. J. Ross, P. W. Lynch, and O. B. Williams, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 53.
Martinat, P. J., 1987: The role of climatic variation and weather in forest insect outbreaks. Insect Outbreaks, P. Barbosa and J. C. Schultz, Eds., Academic Press, 241–268.
Mattson, W. J., and R. A. Haack, 1987: The role of drought in outbreaks of plant-eating insects. BioScience,37, 110–118.
Mayeux, H. S., H. B. Johnson, and H. W. Polley, 1991: Global change and vegetation dynamics. Noxious Range Weeds, L. F. James, J. O. Evans, and R. D. Child, Eds., Westview Press, 62–64.
McCormick, J. C., and H. D. Galt, 1994: Forty years of vegetation trend in southwestern New Mexico. Proc. Symp. on Vegetation Management of the Hot Desert Rangeland Ecosystems, Phoenix, AZ, Society for Range Management, 184–203.
McGowan, J. A., 1990: Climate and change in oceanic systems: The value of time series data. Trends Ecol. Evol.,5, 293–299.
McLaughlin, S. P., and J. E. Bowers, 1982: Effects of wildfire on a Sonoran Desert plant community. Ecology,63, 246–248.
Meko, D. M., E. R. Cook, D. W. Stahle, C. W. Stockton, and M. K. Hughes, 1993: Spatial patterns of tree-growth anomalies in the United States and southeastern Canada. J. Climate,6, 1773–1786.
——, C. W. Stockton, and W. R. Boggess, 1995: The tree-ring record of severe sustained drought. Water Resour. Bull.,31, 789–801.
Michaelsen, J., and L. G. Thompson, 1992: A comparison of proxy records of El Niño–Southern Osillation. El Niño: Historical and Paleoclimatic Aspects of the Southern Oscillation, H. F. Diaz, and V. Markgraf, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 323–348.
Miller, A. J., D. R. Cayan, T. P. Barnett, N. E. Graham, and J. Oberhuber, 1994: Interdecadal variability of the Pacific Ocean: Model response to observed heat flux and wind stress anomalies. Climate Dyn.,9, 287–302.
Mooney, C. Z., and R. D. Duvall, 1993: Bootstrapping: A nonparametric approach to statistical inference. Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, Vol. 95, Sage Publications, 96 pp.
Mopper, S., and T. G. Whitham, 1992: The plant stress paradox: Effects on pinyon sawfly sex ratios and fecundity. Ecology,73, 515–525.
Namias, J., 1955: Some meteorological aspects of drought, with special reference to the summers of 1952–54 over the United States. Mon. Wea. Rev.,83, 199–205.
——, X. Yuan, and D. R. Cayan, 1988: Persistence of North Pacific sea surface temperature and atmospheric flow patterns. J. Climate,1, 682–703.
Neilson, R. P., 1986: High-resolution climatic analysis and southwest biogeography. Science,232, 27–34.
Norwine, J., 1978: Twentieth-century semi-arid climates and climatic fluctuations in Texas and northeastern Mexico. J. Arid Environ.,1, 313–325.
Overpeck, J. T., D. Rind, and R. Goldberg, 1990: Climate induced changes in forest disturbance and vegetation. Nature,343, 51–53.
Pake, C. E., and D. L. Venable, 1995: Is coexistence of Sonoran desert annuals mediated by temporal variability in reproductive success? Ecology,76, 246–261.
Pearson, G. A., 1950: Management of Ponderosa Pine in the Southwest. Agric. Monogr., No. 6, USDA Forest Service, 218 pp.
Pickett, S. T. A., and P. White, Eds., 1985: The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics. Academic Press, 472 pp.
Plummer, F. G., 1912: Forest fires: Their causes, extent and effects, with a summary of recorded destruction and loss. USDA For. Serv. Bull.,117, 38 pp.
Price, C., and D. Rind, 1994: The impact of a 2 × CO2 climate on lightning-caused fires. J. Climate,7, 1484–1494.
Price, P. W., 1991: The plant vigor hypothesis and herbivore attack. Oikos,62, 244–251.
Pyne, S. J., 1982: Fire in America: A Cultural History of Wildland and Rural Fire. Princeton University Press, 654 pp.
Quinn, W. H., and V. T. Neal, 1992: The historical record of El Niño events. Climate Since 1500, R. S. Bradley, and P. D. Jones, Eds., Routledge, Chapman and Hall, 623–648.
Rasmusson, E. M., X. Wang, and C. F. Ropelewski, 1990: The biennial component of ENSO variability. J. Mar. Syst.,1, 71–96.
Redmond, D. R., 1995: Rootlets, mycorrhiza, and soil temperatures in relation to birch dieback. Can. J. Bot.,33, 595–672.
Regensberg, A., 1996: General dynamics of drought, ranching, and politics in New Mexico, 1953–1961. New Mexico Hist. Rev.,71 (1), 25–49.
Ricklefs, R. E., 1987: Community diversity: Relative roles of local and regional processes. Science,235, 167–171.
Rogers, G. F., and M. K. Vint, 1987: Winter precipitation and fire in the Sonoran Desert. J. Arid Environ.,13, 47–52.
Rogers, P., 1996: Disturbance ecology and forest management: A review of the literature. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station General Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-336, USDA Forest Service, 16 pp.
Romme, W. H., 1982: Fire and landscape diversity in subalpine forests of Yellowstone National Park. Ecol. Monogr.,52, 199–221.
Rothermel, R. C., 1983: How to predict the spread and intensity of forest and range fires. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station General Tech. Rep. INT-143, USDA Forest Service, 161 pp.
Sackett, S., S. Haase, and M. G. Harington, 1994: Restoration of Southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems with fire. Proc. Sustainable Ecological Systems: Implementing an Ecological Approach to Land Management, Flagstaff, AZ, USDA Forest Service General Tech. Rep. RM-247, 115–121.
Sanders, C. J., R. W. Stark, E. J. Mullins, and J. Murphy, Eds., 1985:Recent Advances in Spruce Budworms Research. Proc. CANUSA Spruce Budworms Research Symp., Bangor, ME, Canadian Forestry Service.
Savage, M., 1994: Anthropogenic and natural disturbance and patterns of mortality in a mixed conifer forest in California. Can. J. For. Res.,24, 1149–1159.
——, P. M. Brown, and J. Feddema, 1996: The role of climate in a pine forest regeneration pulse in the southwestern United States. Ecoscience,3, 310–318.
Schowalter, T. D., W. W. Hargrove, and D. A. Crossley Jr., 1986: Herbivory in forested ecosystems. Annu. Rev. Entomol.,31, 177–196.
Schulman, E., 1956: Dendroclimatic Changes in Semi-Arid America. The University of Arizona Press, 142 pp.
Shiyatov, S. G., V. S. Mazepa, E. A. Vaganov, and F. H. Schweingruber, 1996: Summer temperature variations reconstructed by tree-ring data at the polar timberline in Siberia. Tree Rings, Environment and Humanity: Proceedings of the International Conference: Tucson, Arizona, 17–21 May 1994, Radiocarbon, 61–70.
Simard, A. J., D. A. Haines, and W. A. Main, 1985: Relations between El Niño–Southern Oscillation anomalies and wildland fire activity in the United States. Agric. For. Meteor.,36, 93–104.
Slowey, N. C., and T. J. Crowley, 1994: Interdecadal variability of Northern Hemisphere circulation recorded by Gulf of Mexico corals. Geophys. Res. Lett.,22, 2345–2348.
Sousa, W. P., 1984: The role of natural disturbance in natural communities: Annu. Rev. Ecol. Systematics,15, 353–391.
Sprugel, D. G., 1991: Disturbance, equilibrium and environmental variability: What is “natural vegetation” in a changing environment? Biol. Conser.,58, 1–18.
Stahle, D. W., and M. K. Cleaveland, 1988: Texas drought history reconstructed and analyzed from 1698 to 1980. J. Climate,1, 59–74.
——, and ——, 1993: Southern Oscillation extremes reconstructed from tree rings of the Sierra Madre Occidental and southern Great Plains. J. Climate,6, 129–140.
Stocker, T. F., and L. A. Mysak, 1992: Climatic fluctuations on the century time scale: A review of high resolution proxy data and possible mechanisms. Climate Change,20, 227–250.
Stocks, B. J., 1987: Fire potential in the spruce budworm-damaged forests of Ontario. For. Chron.,63, 8–14.
Swetnam, T. W., 1993: Fire history and climate change in giant sequoia groves. Science,262, 885–889.
——, and J. L. Betancourt, 1990: Fire–Southern Oscillation relations in the southwestern United States. Science,24, 1017–1020.
——, and P. M. Brown, 1992: Oldest known conifers in the southwestern United States: Temporal and spatial patterns of maximum age. Proc. Workshop on Old-Growth Forests in the Rocky Mountains and Southwest: The Status of Our Knowledge, Portal, AZ, USDA Forest Service General Tech. Rep. RM-GTR213, 24–38.
——, and A. Lynch, 1993: Multi-century, regional-scale patterns of western spruce budworn history. Ecol. Monogr.,63, 399–424.
——, and C. H. Baisan, 1996: Historical fire regime patterns in the Southwestern United States since AD 1700. Proc. Second La Mesa Fire Symp., Los Alamos, NM, USDA Forest Service General Tech. Rep. RM-GTR286, 11–32.
——, B. E. Wickman, G. H. Paul, and C. H. Baisan, 1995: Historical patterns of western spruce budworm and Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreaks in the Northern Blue Mountains, Oregon, since A.D. 1700. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station Res. Paper PNW-RP-484, 27 pp.
Thomas, H. E., 1962: The meteorological phenomenon of drought in the Southwest: Drought in the Southwest, 1942–1956. U.S. Geological Survey Prof. Paper 342A, 43 pp.
Trenberth, K. E., and J. W. Hurrell, 1994: Decadal atmosphere–ocean variations in the Pacific. Climate Dyn.,9, 303–319.
——, and T. J. Hoar, 1996: The 1990–1995 El Niño–Southern Oscillation event: Longest on record. Geophys. Res. Lett.,23, 57–60.
Turner, M. G., W. H. Romme, R. H. Gardner, R. V. O’Neill, and T. K. Kratz, 1993: A revised concept of landscape equilibrium: Disturbance and stability on scaled landscapes. Landscape Ecol.,8, 213–227.
Turner, R. M., 1990: Long-term vegetation change at a fully protected Sonoran desert site. Ecology,71, 464–477.
Tyree, M. T., and J. S. Sperry, 1989: Vulnerability of xylem to cavitation and embolism. Ann. Plant Phys. Mol. Bio.,40, 19–38.
van Wagner, C. E., 1988: The historical pattern of annual burned area in Canada. For. Chron.,64, 182–185; Erratum, 64, 319.
Vautard, R., and M. Ghil, 1989: Singular spectrum analysis in nonlinear dynamics, with applications to paleoclimatic time series. Physica,35D, 395–424.
Villalba, R., and T. T. Veblen, 1997: Regional patterns of tree population age structures in northern Patagonia: Climatic and disturbance influences. J. Ecol.,85, 113–124.
Waring, R. H., 1987: Characteristics of trees predisposed to die. BioScience,37, 569–574.
Webb, R. H., and J. L. Betancourt, 1992: Climatic effects on flood frequency of the Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2379, 40 pp.
Weber, U., and F. H. Schweingruber, 1995: A dendroecological reconstruction of western spruce budworm outbreaks (Choristoneura occidentalis) in the Front Range, Colorado, from 1720 to 1986. Tree,9, 204–213.
White, A. S., 1985: Presettlement regeneration patterns in a southwestern ponderosa pine stand. Ecology,66, 589–594.
White, P. S., and S. T. A. Pickett, 1985: Natural disturbance and patch dynamics: An introduction. The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics, S. T. A. Pickett and P. S. White, Eds., Academic Press, 3–13.
White, T. C. R., 1976: Weather, food, and plagues of locusts. Oecologia,22, 119–134.
Wickman, B. E., 1992: Forest health in the Blue Mountains: The influence of insects and diseases. USDA Forest Service General Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-310, 11 pp.
Xu, J., 1993: The joint modes of the coupled atmosphere–ocean system observed from 1967 to 1987. J. Climate,6, 816–838.
Young, V. A., 1956: The effects of the 1949–1954 drought on the ranges of Texas. J. Range Manage.,9, 139–142.