We are indebted to Jeffery Scott for many useful discussions and comments. Sixty percent ($46,000) of this research was funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DoE) National Institute for Global Environmental Change (NIGEC) through the NIGEC Northeast Regional Center at Harvard University (DoE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC03-90ER61010) and by the DoE’s Program for Computer Hardware, Applied Mathematics, and Model Physics. Financial support was also contributed by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) through the TEPCO/MIT Environmental Research Program and by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Joint Program (JP) on the Science and Policy of Global Change. Financial support does not constitute an endorsement by DoE, TEPCO, or the JP of the views expressed in this article.
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