This research was supported by the NOAA/GFDL Universities Consortium grant (Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean contribution number 703). The authors thank Drs. J. M. Wallace and C. B. Leovy and our colleagues in the consortium for their interests and helpful discussions. Mary Jo Nath at GFDL and Marc Michelsen are also acknowledged for their computing assistance. The comments of Dr. Sumant Nigam and an anonymous reviewer contributed significantly to the improvement of the original manuscript.
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