The MGO portion of this study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research through Grant 96-05-65020. The Illinois portion was supported by the National Science Foundation through Grants ATM-9319952 and ATM-9612324. Klaus Arpe of the Max Planck Institute and Petr Sporyshev of the Main Geophysical Observatory made available the ECHAM-4 model output used in this study. The GHCN dataset was provided by Tom Karl of NCDC with the assistance of Dick Knight.
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