We are grateful for assistance from Daniel Roberge and Nadja Steiner and for discussions with many colleagues. John Walsh, Peter Winsor, and the anonymous reviewers provided valuable critical advice. Terry Tucker and Yanling Yu kindly provided station data from submarine surveys. This research has been supported in parts by the Climate Change Action Fund, Natural Resources Canada, by the Ocean Climate Program, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, and by the U.S. Office of Naval Research.
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