We thank Yochanan Kushnir for his advice and encouragement throughout this project, and Kerry Emanuel for providing the single-column model and for his prompt response to our many questions. We also thank Richard Seager, Mike Wallace, Chris Bretherton, Clara Deser, R. Saravanan, David Battisti, and Michela Biasutti for helpful conversations. JCHC is supported through the NOAA Postdoctoral Program in Climate and Global Change, administered by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research; and by the Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean/Climate Impact Group (JISAO/CIG) under NOAA Cooperative Agreement NAI17RJ1232. AHS is supported through NSF Grant ATM-0096195, NASA grant NAG5-10607, and a Fellowship for Science and Engineering from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation.
Arakawa, A., and W. H. Schubert, 1974: Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment. Part I. J. Atmos. Sci., 31 , 674–701.
Bantzer, C. H., and J. M. Wallace, 1996: Intraseasonal variability in tropical mean temperature and precipitation and their relation to the tropical 40–50 day oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 3032–3045.
Betts, A. K., and W. Ridgeway, 1989: Climatic equilibrium of the atmospheric convective boundary layer over a tropical ocean. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 2621–2641.
Bony, S., and K. A. Emanuel, 2001: A parameterization of the cloudiness associated with cumulus convection: Evaluation using TOGA COARE data. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 3158–3183.
Brown, R. G., and C. S. Bretherton, 1997: A test of the strict quasi-equilibrium theory on long time and space scales. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 624–638.
Chiang, J. C. H., Y. Kushnir, and S. E. Zebiak, 2000: Interdecadal changes in eastern Pacific ITCZ variability and its influence on the Atlantic ITCZ. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27 , 3687–3690.
Chiang, J. C. H., and A. Giannini, 2002: Deconstructing Atlantic ITCZ variability: Influence of the local cross-equatorial SST gradient, and remote forcing from the eastern equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 107 ((D1),) 148–227.
Chou, M-D., D. P. Krantz, and W. Ridgeway, 1991: Infrared heating parameterizations in numerical climate models. J. Climate, 4 , 424–437.
Curtis, S., and S. Hastenrath, 1995: Forcing of anomalous sea-surface temperature evolution in the tropical Atlantic during Pacific warm events. J. Geophys. Res., 100 , 15835–15847.
Da Silva, A. M., C. C. Young, and S. Levitus, 1994: Algorithms and Procedures. Vol. 1, Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994, U. S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 83 pp.
Elliot, J. R., S. P. Jewson, and R. T. Sutton, 2001: The impact of the 1997/98 El Niño event of the Atlantic Ocean. J. Climate, 14 , 1069–1077.
Emanuel, K. A., J. D. Neelin, and C. S. Bretherton, 1994: On large-scale circulation in convecting atmospheres. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120 , 1111–1143.
Fang, M., and K. K. Tung, 1996: A simple model of nonlinear Hadley circulation with an ITCZ: Analytic and numerical solutions. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 1241–1261.
Giannini, A., J. C. H. Chiang, M. A. Cane, Y. Kushnir, and R. Seager, 2001: The ENSO teleconnection to the tropical Atlantic Ocean: Contributions of the remote and local SSTs to rainfall variability in the tropical Americas. J. Climate, 14 , 4530–4544.
Goddard, L., and N. E. Graham, 1999: Importance of the Indian Ocean for simulating rainfall anomalies over eastern and southern Africa. J. Geophys. Res., 104 ((D16),) 19099–19116.
Held, I. M., and A. Y. Hou, 1980: Nonlinear axially symmetric circulations in a nearly inviscid atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 37 , 515–533.
Horel, J. D., and J. M. Wallace, 1981: Planetary-scale atmospheric phenomena associated with the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109 , 813–829.
Kent, E. C., P. G. Challenor, and P. K. Taylor, 1999: A statistical determination of the random observational errors present in voluntary observing ships' meteorological reports. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16 , 905–914.
Klein, S. A., B. J. Soden, and N-C. Lau, 1999: Remote sea surface temperature variations during ENSO: Evidence for a tropical atmospheric bridge. J. Climate, 12 , 917–932.
Kumar, K. K., B. Rajagopalan, and M. A. Cane, 1999: On the weakening relationship between the Indian monsoon and ENSO. Science, 284 , 2156–2159.
Lau, N-C., and M. J. Nath, 1996: The role of the atmospheric bridge in linking tropical Pacific ENSO events to extratropical SST anomalies. J. Climate, 9 , 2036–2057.
Lau, N-C., . 2001: Impact of ENSO on SST variability in the North Pacific and North Atlantic: Seasonal dependence and role of extratropical sea–air coupling. J. Climate, 14 , 2846–2866.
Lindzen, R. S., and S. Nigam, 1987: On the role of sea-surface temperature gradients in forcing low-level winds and convergence in the tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 2418–2436.
Neelin, J. D., and I. M. Held, 1987: Modeling tropical convergence based on the moist static energy budget. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 3–12.
Neelin, J. D., and K. H. Cook, 1987: Evaporation-wind feedback and low-frequency variability in the tropical atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 2341–2348.
Newell, R. E., and Z-X. Wu, 1992: The interrelationships between temperature changes in the free atmosphere and sea surface temperature changes. J. Geophys. Res., 97 ((D4),) 3693–3709.
Norris, J. R., and C. B. Leovy, 1994: Interannual variability in stratiform cloudiness and sea surface temperature. J. Climate, 7 , 1915–1925.
Pan, Y. H., and A. H. Oort, 1983: Global climate variations connected with sea surface temperature anomalies in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean for the 1958–73 period. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111 , 1244–1258.
Philander, S. G. H., D. Gu, G. Lambert, N-C. Lau, T. Li, and R. C. Pacanowski, 1996: Why the ITCZ is mostly north of the equator. J. Climate, 9 , 2958–2972.
Ramanathan, V., R. D. Cess, E. F. Harrison, P. Minnis, B. R. Barkstrom, E. Ahmad, and D. Hartmann, 1989: Cloud-radiative forcing and climate: Results from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. Science, 243 , 57–63.
Raymond, D. J., and X. Zeng, 2000: Instability and large-scale circulations in a two-column model of the tropical troposphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126 , 3117–3135.
Rennó, N. O., K. A. Emanuel, and P. H. Stone, 1994: Radiative–convective model with an explicit hydrologic cycle. 1: Formulation and sensitivity to model parameters. J. Geophys. Res., 99 , 14429–14441.
Rossow, W. B., and R. A. Schiffer, 1991: International satellite cloud climatology project (ISCCP) cloud data products. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72 , 2–20.
Saravanan, R., and P. Chang, 2000: Interaction between tropical Atlantic variability and El Niño–Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 13 , 2177–2194.
Satoh, M., 1994: Hadley circulation in radiative–convective equilibrium in an axially symmetric atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 1947–1968.
Schneider, E. K., 1977: Axially symmetric steady-state models of the basic state for instability and climate studies. Part II: Nonlinear calculations. J. Atmos. Sci., 34 , 280–296.
Sobel, A. H., J. Nilsson, and L. M. Polvani, 2001: The weak temperature gradient and balanced tropical moisture waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 3650–3665.
Sobel, A. H., I. M. Held, and C. S. Bretherton, 2002: The ENSO signal in tropical tropospheric temperature. J. Climate, 15 , 2702–2706.
Spencer, R. W., and J. R. Christy, 1992: Precision and radiosonde validation of satellite gridpoint temperature anomalies. Part I: MSU channel 2. J. Climate, 5 , 847–857.
Wu, Z., E. S. Sarachik, and D. S. Battisti, 2001: Thermally driven tropical circulations under Rayleigh friction and Newtonian cooling: Analytic solutions. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 724–741.
Xie, P., and P. A. Arkin, 1997: Global Precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 2539–2558.
Yu, L., and M. M. Rienecker, 1999: Mechanisms for the Indian Ocean warming during the 1997–98 El Niño. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 735–738.
Yulaeva, E., and J. M. Wallace, 1994: The signature of ENSO in global temperature and precipitation fields derived from the microwave sounding unit. J. Climate, 7 , 1719–1736.