I thank David Thompson and Mark Baldwin for kindly providing the Arctic oscillation indices used in this study. I also thank Dana Hartley for comments on early drafts of this paper. Last, I am greatly appreciative of the comments provided by Brian Hoskins and an anonymous referee, which were instrumental in improving the paper. This work is jointly supported by the NSF Climate Dynamics Program under Grant ATM-0001346 and the NASA Global Modeling and Analysis Program under Grant NAG 5-7471.
Baldwin, M. P., and T. J. Dunkerton, 1999: Propagation of the Arctic oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res, 104 , 30937–30946.
Bishop, C., and A. Thorpe, 1994: Potential vorticity and the electrostatics analogy: Quasi-geostrophic theory. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 120 , 713–731.
Black, R. X., 1998: The maintenance of extratropical intraseasonal transient eddy activity in the GEOS-1 assimilated dataset. J. Atmos. Sci, 55 , 3159–3175.
Black, R. X., and R. M. Dole, 1993: The dynamics of large-scale cyclogenesis over the North Pacific Ocean. J. Atmos. Sci, 50 , 421–442.
Hakim, G. J., D. Keyser, and L. F. Bosart, 1996: The Ohio Valley wave-merger cyclogenesis event of 25–26 January 1978. Part II: Diagnosis using quasigeostrophic potential vorticity inversion. Mon. Wea. Rev, 124 , 2176–2205.
Hartley, D. E., J. Villarin, R. X. Black, and C. A. Davis, 1998: A new perspective on the dynamical link between the stratosphere and troposphere. Nature, 391 , 471–474.
Hartmann, D. L., J. M. Wallace, V. Limpasuvan, D. W. J. Thompson, and J. R. Holton, 2000: Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change? P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97 , 1412–1417.
Hoskins, B. J., M. E. McIntyre, and A. W. Robertson, 1985: On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity maps. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 111 , 877–946.
Hurrell, J. W., 1995: Decadal trends in the North Atlantic oscillation region temperatures and precipitation. Science, 269 , 676–679.
Kuroda, Y., and K. Kodera, 1999: Role of planetary waves in the stratosphere–troposphere coupled variability in the Northern Hemisphere winter. Geophys. Res. Lett, 26 , 2375–2378.
Matsuno, T., 1970: Vertical propagation of stationary planetary waves in the winter Northern Hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci, 27 , 871–883.
Nielsen-Gammon, J. W., and R. J. Lefevre, 1996: Piecewise tendency diagnosis of dynamical processes governing the development of an upper-tropospheric mobile trough. J. Atmos. Sci, 53 , 3120–3142.
Ruosteenoja, K., 1999: The impact of the height of the model top on the simulation of tropospheric stationary waves. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 125 , 677–695.
Shindell, D. T., R. L. Miller, G. A. Schmidt, and L. Pandolfo, 1999a:: Simulation of recent northern winter climate trends by greenhouse-gas forcing. Nature, 399 , 452–455.
Shindell, D. T., D. Rind, N. Balachandran, J. Lean, and P. Lonergan, 1999b: Solar cycle variability, ozone, and climate. Science, 284 , 305–308.
Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett, 25 , 1297–1300.
Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13 , 1000–1016.
Thompson, D. W. J., J. M. Wallace, and G. C. Hegerl, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part II: Trends. J. Climate, 13 , 1018–1036.
Volodin, E. M., and V. Y. Galin, 1999: Interpretation of winter warming on Northern Hemisphere continents in 1977–94. J. Climate, 12 , 2947–2955.
Wallace, J. M., 2000: North Atlantic oscillation/annular mode: Two paradigms—One phenomenon. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 126 , 791–805.