We thank Drs. Syun Akasofu, Michael Mann, Michael Steele, and John Walsh for useful discussions and comments. We would like to express our gratitude to Dr. Ignatius Rigor for providing us with the NCAR data and IABP drifting buoy data and to Dr. Edward Hudson for providing data from the Canadian Northwest Territories. The constructive comments of two anonymous reviewers is greatly appreciated. This project was supported by grants from the International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, and the National Science Foundation's Office Of Polar Programs (#9806926). We thank the Frontier Research System for Global Change for their financial support.
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