Special thanks to E. S. Sarachik at the University of Washington for his suggestions and guidance. Thanks to three anonymous reviewers for their suggestions, to N. Mantua for his comments on the original manuscript, and to numerous individuals at the NOAA Climate Diagnostics Center and at NCAR for conversations about the results. This work was supported by a grant to the Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean (JISAO) under NOAA Cooperate Agreement NA17RJ1232.
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