The authors thank Drs. Arthur J. Miller, Jim Potemra, Bo Qiu, and Shang-Ping Xie for helpful discussions, and Drs. Clara Deser, Nathan Mantua, Hisashi Nakamura, and one anonymous reviewer for comments on an earlier draft. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant OCE00-82543, by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy Grants DE-FG03-01ER63255 and DE-FG02-04ER63862, and by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Grant NA17RJ1231. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of NSF, DOE, or NOAA, or any of their subagencies.
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