This research was funded by NOAA Grant NA17RJ1228 Amendment 6 and NASA Grant NGT5-30344. The authors thank Michael Kistler for preparing the NSIPP GCM data. Drs. David W. J. Thompson and William R. Cotton provided comments that improved the original manuscript. Two anonymous reviewers and Journal of Climate editor Dr. David Straus also provided very helpful comments during the revision process.
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