We thank Isaac Held, Isidoro Orlanski, Alan Plumb, and Steve Garner for valuable discussions and three anonymous reviewers for helpful comments that improved the manuscript. We also thank Thomas Delworth for access to GFDL AM2.1 runs. The ERA-40 reanalysis data were provided by the Data Support Section of the Scientific Computing Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and the assistance is greatly appreciated. GC is supported by the NOAA Climate and Global Change Postdoctoral Fellowship, administered by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. GC is also partially supported by National Science Foundation Grant ATM-0808831. JL is supported by the Advanced Study Program at NCAR.
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