This work was supported by the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs, through Grant OPP-0612533 to the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, and by Grant OPP-0520112 to the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. We acknowledge the following international modeling groups for providing their data for analysis: the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) for collecting and archiving the data, the JSC/CLIVAR Working Group on Coupled Modeling (WGCM) and their Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) and the Climate Simulation Panel for organizing the model data analysis activity, and the IPCC Working Group I’s Technical Support Unit (TSU) for technical support. The IPCC Data Archive at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is supported by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. Finally, we thank three anonymous reviewers for comments and suggestions that improved the manuscript.
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