Thanks are due to CNPq for research support (306319/2004-7) and to FAPESP Serra do Mar project (04/09469-0). Thanks also to Dr. Ruibran dos Reis and to the anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions.
Carvalho, L. M. V., C. Jones, and B. Liebmann, 2004: The South Atlantic convergence zone: Intensity, form, persistence, relationships with intraseasonal to interannual activity and extreme rainfall. J. Climate, 17 , 88–108.
Cavalcanti, I. F. A., and M. K. Kayano, 1999: High-frequency patterns of the atmospheric circulation over Southern Hemisphere and South America. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 69 , 179–193.
Cavalcanti, I. F. A., and V. E. Kousky, cited. 2001: Drought in Brazil during summer and fall 2001 and associated atmospheric circulation features. [Available online at http://www.cptec.inpe.br/products/climanalise/artigos/criseing.PDF.].
Cavalcanti, I. F. A., and V. Kousky, 2003: Climatology of the South American cold fronts. Preprints, Seventh Int. Conf. on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography, Wellington, New Zealand, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 6.5.
Cavalcanti, I. F. A., C. K. Folland, and A. W. Colman, 2002: Note on “Predictability of Northeast Brazil rainfall and real-time forecast skill, 1987–98”. J. Climate, 15 , 1993–1996.
Cunningham, C. A. C., and I. F. A. Cavalcanti, 2006: Intraseasonal modes of variability affecting the South Atlantic Convergence Zone. Int. J. Climatol., 26 , 1165–1180.
Doyle, M. E., and V. R. Barros, 2002: Midsummer low-level circulation and precipitation in subtropical South America and related sea surface temperature anomalies in the South Atlantic. J. Climate, 15 , 3394–3410.
Fasullo, J., and P. J. Webster, 2002: Hydrologic signatures relating the Asian summer monsoon and ENSO. J. Climate, 15 , 3082–3095.
Fasullo, J., and P. J. Webster, 2003: A hydrological definition of Indian monsoon onset and withdrawal. J. Climate, 16 , 3200–3211.
Figueroa, S. N., P. Satyamurty, and P. L. S. Dias, 1995: Simulations of the summer circulation over the South American region with an Eta coordinate model. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 1573–1584.
Fu, R., B. Zhu, and R. E. Dickinson, 1999: How do atmosphere and land surface influence seasonal changes of convection in the tropical Amazon. J. Climate, 12 , 1306–1321.
Gan, M. A., V. E. Kousky, and C. F. Ropelewski, 2004: The South America monsoon circulation and its relationship to rainfall over west-central Brazil. J. Climate, 17 , 47–66.
Gandu, A. W., and J. E. Geisler, 1991: A primitive equations model study of the effect of topography on the summer circulation over tropical South America. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 1822–1836.
Garreaud, R., 2000: Intraseasonal variability of moisture and rainfall over the South American altiplano. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 3337–3346.
Garreaud, R., and J. M. Wallace, 1998: Summertime incursions of midlatitude air into subtropical and tropical South America. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 , 2713–2733.
Grimm, A. M., C. Vera, and R. Mechoso, 2004: The South American Monsoon System. The Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast, WMO Tech. Doc. 1266, TMRP Rep. 70, 219–238.
Kistler, R., and Coauthors, 2001: The NCEP–NCAR 50-Year Reanalysis: Monthly means CD-ROM and documentation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82 , 247–267.
Kousky, V., and C. F. Ropelewski, 1997: The Tropospheric Seasonally Varying Mean Climate over the Western Hemisphere (1979–1995). Atlas No. 3, NCEP/Climate Prediction Center, 135 pp.
Lenters, J., and K. Cook, 1995: Simulation and diagnosis of the regional summertime precipitation climatology of South America. J. Climate, 8 , 2988–3005.
Li, W., and R. Fu, 2004: Transition of the large-scale atmospheric and land surface conditions from the dry to the wet season over Amazonia as diagnosed by the ECMWF reanalysis. J. Climate, 17 , 2637–2651.
Liebmann, B., and J. Marengo, 2001: The seasonality and interannual variability of rainfall in the Brazilian Amazon basin. J. Climate, 14 , 4308–4318.
Liebmann, B., G. N. Kiladis, J. A. Marengo, T. Ambrizzi, and J. D. Glick, 1999: Submonthly convective variability over South America and the South Atlantic convergence zone. J. Climate, 12 , 1877–1891.
Marengo, J., B. Liebmann, V. Kousky, N. Filizola, and I. Wainer, 2001: On the onset and end of the rainy season in the Brazilian Amazon basin. J. Climate, 14 , 833–852.
Marengo, J., W. R. Soares, C. Saulo, and M. Nicolini, 2004: Climatology of the low-level jet east of the Andes as derived from the NCEP–NCAR reanalyses: Characteristics and temporal variability. J. Climate, 17 , 2261–2280.
Mo, K. C., and J. N. Paegle, 2001: The Pacific–South American modes and their downstream effects. Int. J. Climatol., 21 , 1211–1229.
Nogués-Paegle, J., and K. Mo, 1997: Alternating wet and dry conditions over South America during summer. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 279–291.
Nogués-Paegle, J., L. A. Byerle, and K. C. Mo, 2000: Intraseasonal modulation of South American summer precipitation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 837–850.
Nogués-Paegle, J., and Coauthors, 2002: Progress in Pan American CLIVAR research: Understanding the South American monsoon. Meteorologica, 1–2 , 3–32.
Rao, V. B., I. F. A. Cavalcanti, and K. Hada, 1996: Annual variation of rainfall over Brazil and water vapor characteristics over South America. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 26539–26551.
Siqueira, J. R., and L. A. T. Machado, 2004: Influence of the frontal systems on the day-to-day convection variability over South America. J. Climate, 17 , 1754–1766.
Soman, M. K., and K. K. Kumar, 1993: Space–time evolution of meteorological features associated with the onset of Indian summer monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 1177–1194.